Culture & Literature
All About History Book of History Year By Year

All About History Book of History Year By Year

Vol 2

From the Reformation to the age of Revolution, volume two of History Year by Year gives you an in-depth insight into the events that shaped the world. From the end of the Medieval period to the exploration of the New World and the rise of the British Empire, this is a fascinating read for all history enthusiasts. Featuring: The Age of Exploration - How European colonisers established themselves globally. The Renaissance- Scholars in Florence sparked a cultural revolution with renewed understanding of classical art. Enduring Empires - Stretching across continents, empires blazed a trail of conquest and expansion. Discoveries & Inventions - See how astounding discoveries and inventions changed the world forever.

United Kingdom
Future Publishing Ltd
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in this issue

1 min.
history year by year

Our experience of the present and our expectations for the future are shaped by the events that have come before us. How these events have forged the world we live in is a captivating subject. Our world’s history is so rich and varied, full of triumphs and defeats that resonate to this day. In Volume 1 of History Year by Year we took you from ancient civilisations to Medieval times. In Volume 2 we continue our voyage through history, covering the exploration of the New World and the Renaissance before moving on to the discoveries and inventions that followed and concluding with the lead up to World War I. Displayed in an illustrative timeline and packed with incredible details, facts and images, this is the ideal learning tool for people…

19 min.
1 .reformation and exploration 1450–1749

1450–52 THE GREAT ZIMBABWE CIVILIZATION of southeast Africa (see 1106–10) was in decline by the mid-15th century. This coincided with the rise of the Mutapa Empire in the fertile, copper-rich uplands between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers in present-day Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Sustained by lucrative trade in copper, cattle, ivory, slaves, and gold with into competing regional powers in the aftermath of Timur’s invasion of 1398. But in 1451, the new Afghan Lodi dynasty reasserted the sultanate’s former dominance in the region, which lasted until it was ousted by the Mughal Babur in 1526. In Europe, Florentine goldsmith Lorenzo Ghiberti completed his second set of bronze doors for the Baptistry in Florence in 1452. “NO ART, HOWEVER MINOR, DEMANDS LESS THAN TOTAL DEDICATION.” Leon Battista Alberti, Italian polymath (1404–72) Muslim coastal settlements, the Mutapa Empire…

82 min.
voyages of exploration

Christopher Columbus’s voyage across the Atlantic in 1492 sparked an unprecedented opening-up of the world – first by the Portuguese and Spanish, then by the Dutch, English, and French. By 1700, European explorers and colonizers had established themselves globally. European explorers were motivated by glory, Christian zeal, and – above all – gold, spices, and slaves. The goal was the East, source of legendary riches. With overland routes blocked by Muslim states, maritime routes offered the prospect of outflanking them. By 1488, the Portuguese had rounded southern Africa. Ten years later they reached India and, by 1512, the Spice Islands. There, they were later challenged by the Dutch The Spanish went west. Theirs was a more dramatic discovery: an unknown continent, America. By the 1550s, they had conquered two empires – the…

36 min.
the renaissance

A thousand years after the Roman Empire’s collapse, scholars in Florence, Italy, arrived at a renewed understanding of the art, architecture, and literature of the classical period, sparking a cultural revolution. Processional cross 15th century • ITALY The wealth of the Italian Catholic Church is expressed by this cross, made of gold, silver, and enamel, and paraded on religious holidays. Venetian gold ducat 16th century • ITALY This gold coin depicts the Doge of Venice (right) receiving the city’s banner from a dominating St. Mark the Evangelist. The Descent from the Cross c.1435 • NETHERLANDS This painting by Rogier van der Weyden (c.1399–1464) exemplifies Flemish assimilation of the Renaissance move towards idealization of faces and figures. In the 14th century, trade among European states increased and Florence, as a banking and commercial centre – eventually under Medici…

44 min.
the story of arms and armour

Whether for hunting or sport, conflict or contests of skill, hand-held arms have played a crucial role in human existence and advancement. The first weapons developed out of survival tools: found objects, such as stones, were used to bludgeon prey, or to fend off predatory animals or rival humans. As prehistoric man’s skills advanced, simple clubs and stone hand-axes gave way to carefully crafted wooden spears used to hunt animals or impale fish. Even more effective weapons married wooden shafts with razor-sharp flint blades to form axes, daggers, spears, and arrowheads. Soft, easily worked metals such as copper replaced flint, followed by stronger, sharper, and longer Bronze and Iron Age swords, daggers, javelins, and battleaxes. Until the advent of firearms, the history of hand-held weapons is one of variations on a…

61 min.
the rise and fall of the ottoman empire

AN ENDURING POWER THAT DOMINATED IN EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST FOR NEARLY 500 YEARS At its height, towards the end of the 17th century, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the gates of Vienna to the Indian Ocean, and from the Crimea to Algiers. Though the Mongol leader Timur had checked Ottoman ambitions in the early 15th century, once Murad I took the throne in 1413, the expansion programme was vigorously renewed. His son, Mehmed II (r.1451–81), extended Ottoman rule across the Balkans and seized Constantinople (Istanbul) in a blaze of conquest. Under Selim I (r.1512–20), the Safavids were contained at Caldiran and much of the Middle East and North Africa was conquered. Suleiman the Magnificent (r.1520–66) expanded Ottoman territories deep into Hungary and almost as far as the Atlantic. Faced…