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All About HistoryAll About History

All About History No. 79

All About History is the stunningly realised new magazine from the makers of How It Works and All About Space. Featuring beautiful illustrations, photos and graphics depicting everything from ancient civilisations to the Cold War, All About History is accessible and entertaining to all and makes history fun for the whole family.

Country:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Publisher:
Future Publishing Ltd
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13 Issues

IN THIS ISSUE

access_time1 min.
welcome

It’s important not to forget the human cost of the freedom the Allies began securing with the Normandy landings and the liberation of France in 1944. We’ve tried in this issue’s lead feature to honour that sacrifice by not just looking at what was happening on those famous beaches, but to cast our eye to include the men and women who put themselves in harm’s way beyond those landings. D Day is rightly recognised as a gigantic moment in World War II, but the days that followed were no less pivotal. Any false step, any wavering of determination, any subtle shift in the Nazis’ approach could have meant disaster. And since we wanted to take a wider lens to Operation Overlord we’ve invited several experts along. With their help we shed…

access_time1 min.
defining moments

JET POWERED In a major step forward for the advancement of air travel, the de Havilland DH 106 Comet made its first flight on 27 July 1949, lasting just over 30 minutes, marking the first time a jet-powered commercial airliner had taken off and landed. The de Havilland Comet would mark the beginning of a new age of aeronautics, although it would be another two years before the first production jet aircraft became operational. 1949 HISTORIC SPACE WALK Having been the second woman in space it was time for cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya to make history of her own when she launched aboard the Soyuz T-12 with Commander Vladimir Dzhanibekov. On 25 July 1984 she became the first woman to spacewalk, conducting welding exercises outside the Salyut 7 space station. It was a feat…

access_time3 min.
course of the crusades

1071 BATTLE OF MANZIKERT 1071 Romanus IV Diogenes is routed by the Turkish forces united under Sultan Alp Arslan (left). The Byzantines are routed and the emperor captured. POPE RECEIVES DELEGATION FROM ALEXIOS I 1089 Alexios I sends a delegation to Pope Urban II asking for mercenaries to help with the protection of Constantinople, a standard request. Urban II launches First Crusade 1095 Urban II wants to extend his influence over Europe’s secular rulers. Upon receiving Alexios’ mundane request for mercenaries he interprets the message, whether wilfully or not, as an existential plea for survival and combined with political motivations, launches the First Crusade. CRUSADERS CONQUER ANTIOCH 1098 After a nine-month long siege the crusaders gain their first major victory, as Antioch is a strategic stronghold on the road to Jerusalem. Crusaders conquer Jerusalem 1099 After another gruelling siege, four…

access_time4 min.
dome of the rock

The Dome The wooden dome of the building is 25m high and 20m wide, sitting on a drum that is 30m high itself. The outside of the dome was originally made of gold, but now comprises of aluminium covered in gold leaf, while the interior is elaborately decorated with marble, mosaics and verses taken from the Quran. The royal motif depicted by the mosaics likely symbolises Islamic triumph over the Byzantine and Persian Empires. Inside Decoration Unlike the outside, the mosaics inside the Dome of the Rock are original and reflect the techniques used by the Byzantine, evoking similarities with the mosaics found inside the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. However, unlike the Byzantine designs, these mosaics do not depict animals or other living beings in accordance with Muslim law, instead featuring vegetal patterns,…

access_time2 min.
tawashi cavalry

SHIELD The classic round shield design with a heavy boss in the centre continued to be popular for armoured fighters in Saladin’s army. For the cavalry, such a shield would mostly be of use for dismounted combat rather than while still on horseback. Materials would vary between being made from wood, metal or a more traditional hide shield known as a Daraka. HORSE ARMOUR Known as either Tijfaf or Bargustuwan in Arabic or Persian respectively, medium and heavy horse armour seems widespread at this point, varying in its material makeup from metal or leather or even laminated felt, often in numerous layers. The key evolution, though, was that it was much longer and covered more of the horse than earlier protections. SPEAR The spear had been a dominant weapon for many centuries by the time…

access_time5 min.
crusade leaders

ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE FRENCH 1122-1204 The famed Crusader Queen joined her husband King Louis VII for the Second Crusade, leading her own army and heading off in support of her uncle, Prince Raymond of Antioch, who had been requesting aid. An ambush on Mount Cadmus decimated their forces and Louis VII’s insistence on heading to Jerusalem and taking Damascus, forcing Eleanor to join him, proved disastrous. Her journey had its benefits as she returned to Paris with new trade routes to Constantinople and the beginnings of admiralty law. GODFREY OF BOUILLON FRENCH 1060-1100 While Godfrey was the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem established by the Crusaders, he refused the title king as he saw Jesus as the true king of Jerusalem. His journey to the Holy Lands saw him largely in a supporting…

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