EXPLOREMY LIBRARY
Science
How It Works Book of 101 Amazing Facts You Need To Know

How It Works Book of 101 Amazing Facts You Need To Know

How It Works Book Of 101 Things You Need To Know Volume 3

Why do fish have scales? What is the life cycle of a frog? Do bumble bees make honey? How does surround sound work? Why does coffee spill? What are constellations? How were vinyl records made? For the answers to these questions and many more, look no further than this new collection of conundrums and curiosities from six subject areas. Covering the environment, technology, science, space, transport and history, each section is packed with amazing facts to satisfy even the hungriest of minds. Featuring: Environment - Why doe fish have scales? What is the life cycle of a frog? What are killer plants? and more. Technology - How do pinball machines work? What is inside a loudspeaker? What is drone racing? and more. Science - How do BBQ’s work? Why does coffee spill? Why do teapots drip? and more. Space - What is the weather like in space? How do astronauts prepare for space? What are constellations? and more. Transport - What are NASCAR haulers? Can aviation be eco-friendly? What is counter steering? and more.

Country:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Publisher:
Future Publishing Ltd
Frequency:
One-off
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in this issue

1 min.
why do fish have scales?

Thriving underwater requires some excellent morphological adaptations. One key attribute are scales: strong and durable plates that allow for fluid movement and protection from parasites, scrapes and predators. There are many types of scale, depending on the fish’s evolutionary history. For instance, sharks and rays have placoid scales, while ganoid scales are present on sturgeons and paddlefish. The properties of each scale type are suited to the fish’s lifestyle and habitat. The scales all grow in the same direction, tapering towards the tail to make the fish streamlined. Fish with larger, heavier scales such as the Amazonian arapaima gain more protection but are often more restricted in their movement, whereas species such as eels have much smaller and sometimes microscopic scales that give more flexibility, but at the loss of an…

2 min.
what is the life cycle of a frog?

The cycle begins when frogs come together to mate. The male holds the female in a position known as amplexus and fertilises her eggs as they are laid. A female frog can lay a clutch of around 3,000 to 6,000 eggs. Within each jelly-like sphere is a black dot – the developing tadpole. The embryos feed off the surrounding jelly as they grow, and then once they have developed rudimentary gills and a tail after about a week or a month (depending on the species), tadpoles hatch. The hatchlings feed on the rest of the frogspawn jelly mass, as well as any algae that has grown on it. Throughout the next few weeks the tadpoles undergo a fast metamorphosis. First their external gills disappear, replaced by internal gills, which in turn are…

1 min.
how does a venus flytrap work?

The carnivorous Venus flytrap sports a menacing-looking mechanism. The spiked, collapsible leaf is laced with drops of sweet nectar to lure in its prey. When a bug lands, it touches the sensitive trigger hairs on the Venus flytrap’s leaves. According to the latest theory, touching one hair does nothing, but touching two causes the trap to snap closed. When the fly struggles, it’s likely to trigger three hairs, which readies the plant’s cells for digestion, and touching five hairs starts the release of digestive enzymes. The plant can even adjust the amount of digestive fluid produced, depending on how large the prey is. When an insect lands on the trap and triggers the hairs, this tension is released and the leaves close in a fraction of a second. The large guard hairs…

1 min.
what are killer plants?

Drosera There are over 100 species of drosera, which are commonly known as ‘sundews’ as they appear to be constantly covered in dew. These tiny droplets are actually sticky enzymes that trap and start to digest any prey as soon as it lands on the plants’ leaves. Pinguicula This plant catches prey using sticky leaves. The tacky substance is actually full of digestive enzymes, which break down the insects once they become trapped. When winter arrives, some species of pinguicula become quite dormant and cease their carnivorous activities. Nepenthes These plants lure insects, sometimes even rats, into their cup-like pitchers with an attractive scent. Once trapped, the prey drowns in the liquid within the pitcher and is broken down by digestive juices, allowing the plant to absorb the vital nutrients it needs to survive. Sarracenia Like Nepenthes,…

1 min.
what is soil made of?

In its simplest form, soil is a gritty mixture of ground-up minerals and decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter from the forest canopy. These raw ingredients are then all completely mixed and churned together by the bugs and worms that live within. The broken-up rocks that make up soil can come from the bedrock that lies deep below, or from other sources, where rocks, rubble and more soil is transported by forces such as rivers or glaciers. There are six major types of soil, each with different mineral quantities and qualities. Clay soils are dense but high in nutrients, sandy soils are light, dry and relatively acidic, while silt soils are very fertile and hold plenty of moisture. Loam soils contain a balance of clay, sandy and silt soil types,…

1 min.
how do stalagmites and stalactites form?

Struggling to tell the difference between these two formations? When you see the letter ‘c’ in stalactites, think ‘ceiling’, as they hang from the roofs of caves. And when you see the ‘g’ in stalagmites, think ‘ground’, as they rise from the floor like inverted icicles. Both structures are known as speleothems, and are formed over thousands of years, as water trickles through the cave and minerals are deposited layer upon layer. Stalactites Steady drops of water build these structures downwards Stalagmites Steady drops of water build these structures downwards…