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All About HistoryAll About History

All About History No. 68

All About History is the stunningly realised new magazine from the makers of How It Works and All About Space. Featuring beautiful illustrations, photos and graphics depicting everything from ancient civilisations to the Cold War, All About History is accessible and entertaining to all and makes history fun for the whole family.

United Kingdom
Future Publishing Ltd
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“I don’t believe a word of the whole thing,” declared Werner Heisenberg, the scientific head of Nazi Germany’s nuclear program, after hearing the news that the United States had dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima in August 1945.Germany had a significant lead over the Manhattan Project, beginning its research in April 1939, with some of the best scientists, a strong industrial base, and sufficient materials. The Allies were concerned enough about the Nazi nuclear threat that Churchill and Roosevelt agreed that it had to be stopped at any cost. Codenamed Operation Peppermint, scores of British lives were lost as undercover agents led daring raids on the heavy water plant at Vemork, in German-occupied Norway. However, as Heisenberg’s disbelief shows, the Nazis were actually far from developing the bomb. From…

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editor’s picks

Unleashing the longbow Explore the Battle of Crécy in-depth, the first land battle of the Hundred Years’ War and a clash over the very nature of warfare Peterloo Remembered Marking its 199th anniversary this month, discover why this massacre was a landmark moment for British politics Why was Darius great? Inside the life and the legend of the Persian king who came from uncertain origins to rule from Eastern Europe to India ■…

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defining moments

NAZI TREASURE TROVEA soldier in the US Third Army surveys plunder Nazi forces had hidden inside a church at Ellingen, Germany. The Third Reich’s Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg, or ERR, systemically looted paintings, sculptures, books and other national treasures from occupied countries, stealing an estimiated one-fifth of all the artworks in Europe. While the Allies returned around five million items between 1945-51, the mammoth task is ongoing. 1945 (© Alamy) VICTORIAN TRAFFIC JAM While modern-day London commuters will no doubt sympathise with this scene at Westminster Bridge, gridlock was a growing problem for the capital in the 19th century. As the population grew from one million in 1800 to 6.5 million by 1900, horse-drawn omnibuses began to fill London’s narrow streets from 1828, railways crisscrossed the city after Euston station…

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“Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening” Coco Chanel ■…

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centuries of style

400 STICK A BROOCH ON IT In the early Medieval era, layering and tunics were in. Richly embroidered garments were often fastened with an ornate brooch, examples of which have been found in early Medieval graves. 1150 THE TUNIC EVOLVES In the later Medieval period, tunics evolved into simple kirtles, fastened with a decorative belt. Married women veiled their hair and towards the end of the century, wimples made their first appearance. 1250 ALL ABOUT THE HEADGEAR Fashionable women embroidered their modest dresses and really went to town on their headgear. Barbettes onto which decorative headpieces could be attached allowed women to model ornate hats and veils. 1350 THE FIRST FASHIONS …

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spinning jenny

Guiding the cotton In order to guide the threads in to the right place on the spindle, it was necessary to have a pressing faller wire. This was released with a hand lever once the spinning was complete, bringing the faller down on to the threads. A counter balance tightened the cords. Lengthening threads With the thread extended and stationary, spinning the wheel ensured a twisting motion which would rotate the spindles and spin the thread into yarn. This would continue until the desired fineness was attained. If they were producing yarn that was intended to go across the length of a fabric (a warp), then it needed to be stronger than that going across the width (a weft). Large machines Initially the machines were small…