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All About HistoryAll About History

All About History No. 71

All About History is the stunningly realised new magazine from the makers of How It Works and All About Space. Featuring beautiful illustrations, photos and graphics depicting everything from ancient civilisations to the Cold War, All About History is accessible and entertaining to all and makes history fun for the whole family.

País:
United Kingdom
Língua:
English
Editora:
Future Publishing Ltd
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ASSINATURA
US$32,99
13 Edições

NESTA EDIÇÃO

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welcome

“The die is now cast,” wrote the king to his First Minister, Lord North. “The colonies must either submit or triumph. I do not wish to come to severer measures, but we must not retreat.” King George III of the United Kingdom casts a long shadow, but like all shadows its aspect is misshapen and its features are stretched out of all proportion. George III is shorthand for “madness” (thanks to the film, see page 98) and (especially in the US) “tyranny”, but although its unwritten constitution was still in the process of being (un)written, the United Kingdom was a constitutional monarchy at the time of the American Revolution. So how can a king whose authority is exercised through Parliament be a tyrant? And to what extent did Parliament’s reaction to the disgruntled…

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defining moments

BATMAN BEGINS Michael Keaton tries out the view from behind the camera during the filming of the first Batman film. Keaton was controversial choice for the role due to what was then mainly a comedy background, but director Tim Burton saw the intensity he could bring to the character. Burton was vindicated when the film grossed $40.49 million in its opening weekend alone, going on to earn over $411 million worldwide. 1989 BROTHERHOOD AND UNITY Yugoslav president Josip Tito was praised for both holding his divided nation together and for walking the knife-edge between communist East and capitalist West. His death represented the beginning of the end of Yugoslavia’s “Brotherhood and Unity”, but his funeral showcased unity of a different kind, bringing together the likes of Kim Il-sung, Saddam Hussein, Yasser Arafat, Leonid…

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medieval medicine in history

541-542 THE JUSTINIAN PLAGUE 25-50 MILLION Number of estimated deaths across the empire Approximate number of deaths each day in Constantinople during the plague 10,000 This was the FIRST major outbreak of bubonic plague in the world 7TH CENTURY WRITING IT DOWN Greek physician Paul of Aegina creates his seven-volume medical encyclopaedia, incorporating his own knowledge with that of the ancient Greeks and Romans – it would remain popular for the next 800 years. 610 CHINESE MEDICINE Chao Yuanfang, an imperial court physician during the Sui Dynasty, compiles his Treatise On The Many Illnesses. He discusses more than 1,700 diseases, such as smallpox, which greatly influences medicine in China. 754 ISLAMIC GOLDEN AGE The first pharmacies are opened in Baghdad and they prove to be very popular, with many more founded throughout the Arab world – they would finally appear in Europe…

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an apothecary

Self-reliance Initially, apothecaries would cultivate their own plants and herbs in a garden plot outside. This would help them to cut down on costs and ensure that there was enough supply to produce the necessary treatments. As time went on and demand rose, they would purchase their ingredients from a growing number of suppliers. Trading in beauty As well as helping people back to health, an apothecary would make and sell perfume and other beauty products in much the same way as a modern-day pharmacy. Often ingredients would have a dual use. Tragacanth, a natural gum taken from the dried sap of Middle Eastern legumes, for example, was used in both a perfume and cough medicine. Live animals Typically, an apothecary would also have live animals at his disposal, although perhaps not always permanently on…

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a physician

EDUCATED MEN High-end physicians in the Middle Ages were university educated and their medicine was rooted in the writings of ancient Greeks such as Hippocrates and early medieval Arab physicians. They treated aristocrats and royalty, explaining illness as an imbalance of the four humours (or distinct bodily fluids): black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood. A BUNCH OF POSIES It was widely thought that diseases were carried by smell so physicians would seek to protect themselves by masking any stench. Posies were a popular choice but oranges were also used. Flowers also came in handy for treating smallpox – as well as giving patients red food and drinks and wrapping them in red cloths, physicians would ground red roses with bamboo juice. CUTTING TREATMENTS There were some extreme cures for disease. Inflamed lymph nodes within…

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hall of fame  marvellous medics

PAUL OF AEGINA BYZANTINE C.625-690 Paul was one of the most prominent physicians of the Byzantine period. He studied medicine in Alexandria, Egypt and was also exposed to Arabic medicine through his travels to the Middle East. He wrote The Epitome of Medicine, comprising of seven books on various subjects including hygiene and toxicology, combining the work of Hippocrates and Galen with new medical procedures, such as cauterisation. It was highly influential and remained as the standard guide for medicine and surgery for 800 years. AL-ZAHRAWI SPANISH 936-1013 Widely hailed as ‘the father of modern surgery’, Al-Zahrawi was the greatest surgeon of the Islamic Golden Age. In roughly the year 1000, he completed his 30-volume illustrated medical encyclopaedia Al-Tasrif, which was intended for medical students. Documenting Al-Zahrawi’s almost 50 years of medical experience, it discussed…

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