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History of WarHistory of War

History of War No. 61

From the conquering legions of Ancient Rome to the thunderous tank battles of World War II and beyond, History of War takes you deeper inside the minds of history’s fighting men, further under the bonnets of some of the world’s most devastating war machines, and higher above the battlefield to see the broad sweep of conflict as it happened.

Pays:
United Kingdom
Langue:
English
Éditeur:
Future Publishing Ltd
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welcome

This November marks the final milestone of the centenary years of World War I. Over four years of warfare on a previously unthinkable scale had ended with the signing of the Armistice in the early hours, in a small train carriage, a century ago. It was peace at last, ‘never again’, ‘the war to end all wars’, and so on. As Dr Jonathan Krause explains in this issue’s cover feature, history is far more complex than this neat ending. In the aftermath of WWI, new regimes and states battled for dominance across the world. Far from a lasting peace, this so-called ‘inter-war’ period – Foch’s correctly predicted ‘20 years armistice’ – resulted in yet more bloodshed and carnage. SIGN UP TO THE HISTORY OF WAR NEWSLETTER FOR ISSUE PREVIEWS & MORE bit.ly/_HoW_…

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contributors

TOM GARNER This issue Tom spoke with Allan Wilmot, a Jamaican Royal Navy and RAF veteran who served in lifesaving missions off Britain’s coast during WWII (p. 74). In the Frontline, he takes a look at the conquests of the Teutonic Order (p. 14). MARIANNA BUKOWSKI In 1940, Captain Witold Pilecki, a soldier with the Polish resistance, offered to go on a reconnaissance mission into Auschwitz. This issue Marianna recounts Pilecki’s incredible story and how he exposed the greatest horror of WWII (p. 44). MIGUEL MIRANDA In 1942 the Japanese army was driving forward in its conquests in the Far East, with Allied strongholds in their sights. In this issue’s Great Battles, Miguel recounts how US forces faced a shock defeat in the Fall of Bataan (p. 56).…

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war in focus

WAITING FOR THE 11TH HOUR Taken: 11 November 1918 Irish Guardsmen appear relaxed in their position, with five minutes left before the Armistice that will bring an end to World War I comes into effect. Although the conditions of the Armistice were signed at 5am earlier that day, six hours were allowed in order to spread the word across the frontline that the ceasefire had been agreed. THE FALLEN AT TYNE COT Taken: 28 May 2008 ‘Tyne Cot’ was the name given by the Northumberland Fusiliers to a barn that stood on the road to Passchendaele. It is the largest Commonwealth war cemetery in the world, with over 11,900 servicemen of WWI buried or commemorated here. 8,370 of the burials are as yet unidentified, and there are four German burials, with three being unidentified. ALLIES IN…

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timeline of the... teutonic order

1190-98 A CRUSADING ORDER German knights establish a field hospital at the Siege of Acre during the Third Crusade, and Pope Innocent III officially sanctions them as the Teutonic Order in 1198. Pope Innocent III becomes infamous for his expansion of crusades in Europe, including against Muslims in Spain, Cathars in southern France and the campaign that leads to the sack of Constantinople 1226-74 PRUSSIAN CRUSADE The order is invited by Polish princes to Christianise the pagan Prussians, who inhabit what are now the Baltic states. Teutonic knights quash several Prussian uprisings and eventually establish control of Prussia with the establishment of a monastic state. 1228-29 SIXTH CRUSADE The Teutonic Order supports Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, when he invades Palestine. The crusaders manage to recapture Jerusalem through diplomatic means, and Teutonic knights escort Frederick for a political ‘coronation’…

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knights in eastern europe

1 BATTLE OF KRÜCKEN 29 NOVEMBER 1249 KAMENKA, KALININGRAD OBLAST Marshal Heinrich Botel leads Teutonic knights in pillaging the lands of the pagan Natangians (Prussians). The knights surrender after being surrounded at Krücken, but 54 are massacred in cold blood. The Teutonic Order never surrenders to pagans again. “THE KNIGHTS SURRENDER AFTER BEING SURROUNDED AT KRÜCKEN, BUT 54 ARE MASSACRED IN COLD BLOOD. THE TEUTONIC ORDER NEVER SURRENDERS TO PAGANS AGAIN” 2 BATTLE OF DURBE 13 JULY 1260 DURBE, LATVIA Outnumbered Samogitian Lithuanians defeat a combined force of knights from the Teutonic and Livonian Orders. 150 knights are killed, including the Livonian master, in one of the Order's largest defeats of the 13th century. 3 SIEGE OF KÖNIGSBERG 1262-65 KALININGRAD, KALININGRAD OBLAST Pagan Prussians besiege the important Teutonic stronghold of Königsberg. At one point, Teutonic knights led by Grand…

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famous battle lake peipus 1242

During the 13th century, medieval Russia was a myriad of republics and principalities that were vulnerable to Mongol or European invasions. One of the most attacked was the Republic of Novgorod, which was predominantly inhabited by Orthodox Christians. The citizens of the city of Novgorod had the unusually advanced democratic right to elect a prince. This leader, who was usually chosen from outside the republic, acted as a military commander, and in 1236 the citizens elected Prince Alexander of Vladimir. In 1240, Sweden invaded Novgorod but Alexander defeated them at the Battle of the Neva. This victory earned him the sobriquet of ‘Nevsky’ (meaning ‘of the Neva’) and the prince would be known afterwards as ‘Alexander Nevsky’. The victory at Neva enhanced Alexander’s reputation, but he intervened in domestic affairs and was…

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