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category_outlined / Culture et Littérature
National Geographic HistoryNational Geographic History

National Geographic History November/December 2018

See how National Geographic History magazine inflames and quenches the curiosity of history buffs and informs and entertains anyone who appreciates that the truth indeed is stranger than fiction with a digital subscription today. And that history is not just about our forebears. It’s about us. It’s about you.

Pays:
United States
Langue:
English
Éditeur:
National Geographic Society
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from the editor

The Sistine Chapel ceiling can feel overwhelming. Myriad figures and colors compete for your attention, pulling your eye from one dramatic moment to the next. God creates the sun and the planets; the first man receives the spark of life; Adam and Eve are cast out of Eden; and terrified people flee the Flood. It’s dizzying to try to take in all the action.Calmer moments are found in the 12 portraits surrounding these iconic scenes. Seven of them are biblical prophets, and the rest are sibyls, five women from the classical world who could see the future. The beautiful Delphic Sibyl graces our cover, and the elegant Libyan Sibyl perches above.Their presence on the Sistine ceiling not only provides moments of respite, it also reveals the respect that Michelangelo…

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civil war surgeon’s pit reveals soldiers’ fates

Archaeologists carefully excavate the surgeon’s pit at Manassas National Battlefield Park. (KATE D. SHERWOOD/SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION) An illustration of the Battle of Second Manassas (also known as the Second Battle of Bull Run) depicts the violent confrontation fought in August 1862. (MPI/GETTY IMAGES) Kari Bruwelheide of the Smithsonian Institution examines remains found at the site. (NPS/NATHAN KING) ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOUND AN ENFIELD BULLET EMBEDDED IN A FEMUR FROM THE PIT. (KATE D. SHERWOOD/SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION) The discovery of a surgeon’s pit at a Civil War battlefield has shed new light on the wounded and the doctors who tried to save them.In 2014 the National Park Service found bone fragments while working on a utility project at Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia. They sent the remains to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum…

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the kindest cut

SURGEON’S TOOLS from the 1860s, used during the U.S. Civil War (THE COUNTRY DOCTOR MUSEU) SAW MARKS REVEAL THE FATE OF AN AMPUTATED LEG BONE FOUND AT THE MANASSAS SITE. (KATE D. SHERWOOD/SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION) IN THE 1860S a stomach wound could be a death sentence. Most injuries, however, affected soldiers’ limbs, which surgeons almost always opted to amputate—a process often undergone without anesthesia. Given the trauma of such a procedure, speed was crucial. The severed limbs found in the Manassas pit reveal signs of considerable skill and accuracy in the marks left behind by the surgical saw. It is believed that the field surgeon would first use a scalpel to cut the tendons and flesh around the circumference of the limb until reaching the bone. Peeling back the…

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connecting two continents

1681Vitus Bering is born in Denmark. In 1704 he will join Tsar Peter I’s new Russian Navy.1725Bering sets out for Siberia. His mission, given him by Peter the Great, is to establish if Asia and North America are connected.1728Bering sails through the strait between the two continents, but the North American coast is hidden from sight by fog.1730sPlanning begins for Russia’s Great Northern Expedition to map Siberia and the North American coast, in which Bering will play a key role. 1741Bering sets foot in North America, but the Danish commander dies before he can return to Russia. ■…

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vitus bering: explorer of dire straits

PETER THE GREAT IN AN 18TH-CENTURY PORTRAIT. CHÂTEAU DE VERSAILLES, FRANCE Talented sailors like Bering were welcomed into Peter the Great’s newly created Russian Navy. Although Siberia feels far away to many Americans, it actually sits only about 55 miles from Alaska, which is separated from Asia by the glacial waters of the Bering Strait. The man for whom that narrow passage was named played a vital role in Russia’s early 18th-century attempts to expand into North America. Among the very first Europeans to lay eyes on the coast of Alaska, Vitus Jonassen Bering is credited as commanding the first crew to cross from Asia to northwestern America in modern history, in circumstances of extraordinary hardship and heroism. The Call of the Ocean Despite serving several tsars and…

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the look of a hero

VITUS BERING HAS achieved the rare distinction of being a hero of both his native Denmark and adopted Russia, but there is little consensus as to what he looked like in life. One portrait of him showed him with a round, chubby face and long hair, but experts now widely believe the painting is of his uncle, not him. This 1989 illustration shows Aleksey Chirikov (co-commander of his 1741 expedition) with the Dane (left), who has indistinct features. In 1991 Bering’s body was exhumed by a joint Danish-Russian expedition, allowing experts to study his skull. Based on this analysis, it is now believed his face would have been long and thin, and his body athletic. ■…

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