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Kids & Teens
Cobblestone American History and Current Events for Kids and Children

Cobblestone American History and Current Events for Kids and Children July/August 2019

COBBLESTONE is the award-winning and respected leader in the study of American history for young people. COBBLESTONE tells America’s story through a unique mix of captivating articles, lively graphics, historical photographs, primary sources, and maps. Each themed-issue examines historical events in detail making them exciting and relevant to today. A must-have for every history classroom and media center. Grades 5-9.

Country:
United States
Language:
English
Publisher:
Cricket Media, Inc.
Frequency:
Monthly
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9 Issues

in this issue

3 min.
a magical moment

On a Wednesday morning in the middle of July 1969, three astronauts boarded a spacecraft off the coast of central Florida. It was a day I’d been waiting for. I had seen a few liftoffs on television before, but this one was special. It was Apollo 11. The astronauts were headed for the Moon. Not just to orbit it, as Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 had done a few months earlier. This time, people would actually walk on it! I had a hard time getting through the next three days until Apollo 11 reached the Moon. I was glued to the television. I only slipped out to play when there was no news to watch. Finally, Sunday morning arrived. After going to church and eating dinner, my family gathered in my…

6 min.
the space race begins

Soviet Fires Earth Satellite into Space,” shouted The New York Times headline. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first human-made satellite into space. Sputnik measured just 23 inches across. Yet, the paper called the launch “an achievement of profound scientific significance for all mankind.” Both Soviet and U.S. scientists had talked about plans to send scientific instruments into Earth orbit. Neither nation knew the other’s precise dates, but U.S. scientists suspected the Soviet launch could come soon. Still, the Soviet Union’s success stunned many Americans. The launch worried them, too. After World War II (1939–1945), the United States and the Soviet Union had engaged in a Cold War. The countries didn’t shoot or bomb each other. But they were highly distrustful of each other. Americans saw themselves as defenders…

4 min.
race to the moon time line

On March 16, 1926, Dr. Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. That was an important step for future space exploration. Powerful rockets are needed to carry spacecraft from Earth’s surface into suborbital and orbital space. Of course, several decades passed before a spacecraft made that trip. And other scientists played a part, including German rocket scientist Dr. Wernher von Braun. In the decade or so before the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created, he helped the U.S. Army develop improved rockets. He eventually joined NASA and became a strong supporter of space exploration. By the 1950s, the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union had developed into an intense competition over space exploration. It became known as the Space Race. Here are…

1 min.
get with the programs

Project Mercury 1958-1963 Mercury’s objective was to launch a single human into Earth orbit and to return him safely to Earth. The program’s Redstone and Atlas rockets had originally been designed by and for the U.S. Army. Selected by NASA in 1959, the first astronauts all were experienced test pilots. They became known as the Mercury Seven. The program completed 20 unmanned flights and 6 manned flights. Several of the uncrewed flights carried primates. Mercury confirmed that people could survive in space. Project Gemini 1962-1966 Gemini’s objective was to launch a 2-person crew into space and to understand what was needed for space travel. The program studied the impact that time in space had on astronauts. It also tested spacecraft landing procedures and docking methods. It involved making trips to Earth orbit and…

6 min.
the eagle has landed

For eight days in 1969, the journey of the Apollo 11 astronauts to the Moon captured Americans’ attention. It is remembered today as one of the most historic and amazing events in history. The Apollo program was the brainchild of space scientist Dr. Wernher von Braun. Von Braun’s specialty was rocket physics. He began working in the field in Germany in the late 1920s. After he was captured toward the end of World War II (1939–1945), he worked for the U.S. Army and then the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Von Braun guided the work on U.S. rocket development, creating the largest rocket launch vehicle in the world—the Saturn V. Any spacecraft attempting to escape Earth’s gravity needs to accelerate to a velocity of about 24,500 miles per hour (mph). That…

1 min.
rocket science

Rockets use a lot of fuel and multiple stages to get a spacecraft into Earth orbit. Let’s take a look at a Saturn V. It all begins at the bottom. After the LM lands on the Moon and then returns the astronauts safely to the CSM, it is released and left behind. Eventually, the Service Module is released, too. Only the Command Module carrying the crew returns to Earth. As the CSM approaches the Moon, it disconnects and turns around to dock with the LM. The adapter panels that hold the LM in place fall away. The third stage carries liquid hydrogen fuel, liquid oxygen, and 1 engine. The engine boosts the Command Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and the Lunar Module (LM) Adapter (the portion that carries the protected LM) into Earth…