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Man on the Moon 50th Anniversary

Man on the Moon 50th Anniversary

Man on the Moon 50th Anniversary

Celebrate the golden anniversary of the first Moon landing with this BBC Science Focus Special Edition and retrace the journey from the start of the space race to the moment Neil Armstrong took his historic small step. IN THIS ISSUE… -How JFK inspired a nation to win the space race -Meet the NASA rocket scientist with a dark past -Neil Armstrong on his emergency lunar landing -The women who were key to Apollo 11’s success -Experts explain why we should return to the Moon

United Kingdom
Immediate Media Company London Limited
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1 Min.
man on the moon 50th anniversary

EDITORIAL Editor Daniel Benneff Managing editor Alice Lipscombe-Southwell Production editor Robert Banino Commissioning editor Jason Goodyer Staff writer James Lloyd Editorial assistant Helen Glenny ART & PICTURES Art editor Joe Eden Deputy art editor Steve Boswell Designer Jenny Price Additional design Dean Purnell Picture editor James Cutmore PRESS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS Press officer Carolyn Wray carolyn.wray@immediate.co.uk PRODUCTION Production director Sarah Powell Senior production co-ordinator Derrick Andrews Reprographics Tony Hunt, Chris Sutch PUBLISHING Commercial director Jemima Dixon Content director Dave Musgrove Publishing director Andy Healy Managing director Andy Marshall BBC STUDIOS, UK PUBLISHING Director of editorial governance Nicholas Brett Director of consumer products and publishing Andrew Moultrie Head of publishing Mandy Thwaites UK Publishing coordinator Eva Abramik Contact UK.Publishing@bbc.com www.bbcstudios.com CIRCULATION/ADVERTISING Circulation manager Rob Brock…

2 Min.
risk versus reward

I can’t look at the Moon without being reminded of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin – I’m old enough to remember watching the flickering black and white images of Armstrong taking his ‘one small step’ on TV. The success of Apollo 11 now seems even more remarkable (and the astronauts even more heroic) given how the mission depended on primitive computing and untested equipment. Despite NASA making every effort to ensure their safety, the Apollo 11 crew was still risking everything by blasting off aboard the enormous Saturn V rocket. Indeed, President Nixon’s speechwriter William Safire had drafted a speech to be given if the astronauts ended up stranded on the lunar surface. Had the momentum of the space race been maintained, there would surely be footprints on Mars by now. But…

8 Min.
shooting for the moon

Five decades after Neil Armstrong spoke the words, “Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed,” they still have the power to send shivers down your spine. With them, he told NASA’s mission control and an audience of almost 600 million people watching around the world that his lunar module had touched down on the surface of the Moon. What happened on 20 July 1969, when Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first men to walk on the grey, powdery surface of the Moon, was a landmark in human history – a “giant leap for mankind”, in Armstrong’s famous words. But, as Aldrin told television viewers the night before the astronauts returned to Earth, the Apollo 11 mission was also the reward for years of “blood, sweat and tears” from “thousands…

1 Min.
red star rising

When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the world’s first artificial satellite, in October 1957, the Cold War moved into space. Until the late 1950s, Western observers assumed that American technology was far ahead of its Soviet equivalent. But the Sputnik programme had become a matter of national pride for its Russian architects, a way of proving that their country had recovered from the war and that the Communist system would triumph over the capitalism of America. In the United States, the reaction was fear and shock: congress rushed to pass the National Defense Education Act, redesigning the school curriculum and authorising $1 billion in extra spending to boost American science and technology. Over the next few years, though, it was the Russians who led the way in an intensely competitive parallel…

2 Min.
timeline usa vs ussr: the race to the moon

USA 6 DECEMBER 1957 First satellite launch attempt with a Vanguard rocket fails. 31 JANUARY 1958 A Juno 1 rocket puts the Explorer 1 satellite into orbit. 1 OCTOBER 1958 New space agency NASA begins operations. 9 APRIL 1959 The astronauts of the Mercury programme are introduced. 11 AUGUST 1960 Images of space are returned from orbit for the first time. 31 JANUARY 1961 Ham the chimpanzee makes a successful suborbital flight. 5 MAY 1961 Alan Shepard makes a 15-minute suborbital space flight. 25 MAY 1961 President Kennedy announces his plans to send men to the Moon. 27 OCTOBER 1961 Saturn I rocket launch marks the start of the Apollo programme. 20 FEBRUARY 1962 John Glenn spends five hours in space orbiting the Earth. 23 MARCH 1965 Gemini 3 sees two astronauts orbit Earth and return safely. 3 JUNE 1965 Ed White performs a spacewalk from Gemini 4. 15 DECEMBER 1965 Gemini 6A and 7 make…

1 Min.
1968: the us takes a chance

In 1968, NASA was still recovering from the previous year’s Apollo 1 tragedy, in which a fire ignited in the command module during a preflight test on the launchpad, killing the Apollo programme’s first crew: Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee. Despite the disaster, the programme was still proceeding and the Apollo 7 mission saw a successful manned Earth orbital mission of the Apollo capsule in October 1968, proving that it was now ready for longer test flights. The same could not be said of the full-scale Saturn V rocket, however. Unmanned tests revealed serious problems with its engines and control systems. Even so, NASA committed a human crew to the rocket’s next flight. NASA administrator James Webb was under immense strain, trying to protect the programme’s reputation after the…