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Dig History and Archaeology Magazine for Kids and Children

Dig History and Archaeology Magazine for Kids and Children May/June 2018

Budding archaeologists are off to new adventures at archaeological sites around the world, where they look over the shoulders of professional archaeologists working in the field to unearth important finds. DIG also brings readers right into working laboratories and museums to learn about cutting-edge conservation techniques. Interviews with onsite archaeologists give children a well-rounded view what archaeology is really all about. Grades 5-9

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United States
Cricket Media, Inc.

in this issue

2 min.
why the atlantic slave trade?

To be sure, the Atlantic Slave Trade was a brutal business that prospered for more than 200 years. The question that DIG faced was how to tell the story of this trade. The answer did not come quickly. I knew we needed to make one especially important point. The success of this business depended on the ability of some humans to be inhuman. The focus of the issue, however, needed to be the courage of those enslaved, the difficulties they faced. What also was important to keep in mind was that the facts presented had to be proven facts. We would need to look at the ports and routes the merchants and vessels used. More important, we needed to address the question of why the trade started. What kept it going? Who…

3 min.
the ports & the routes

It was a new century — the 16th. And, with each passing year, the number of people, plants, animals, and manufactured goods crossing the Atlantic Ocean increased. So, too, did the number of European settlements in the Americas. As a result, many trading posts were being built. It often made sense for ships to visit several ports before returning home. Some ships left England and headed south to the West African coast. They then crossed the Atlantic to colonies in the Americas, before heading east across the Atlantic to England. Other ships sailed from colonies in New England to West Africa. They then set their course for the Caribbean colonies, before heading back to New England. The Goal The basic reason for all these routes was business profits. The pursuit of profit…

3 min.
the driving forces

Around 320 B.C.E., a Greek sailor named Pytheas of Massalia wrote about a journey he took along the Atlantic coast of what is present-day Europe. He described sailing as far north as England, Ireland, and a place he called Thule. His Thule may have been Norway or Iceland. Pytheas also made several scientific observations about the ocean. One was the steady movement of the North Atlantic Current. He called the powerful current okeanos (Greek for “great river”). Ocean Currents Surface movements of water, such as the North Atlantic Current (see B in illustration above), resemble rivers. Unlike rivers, however, they are powered by winds. The earth’s rotation and the differences in the solar heating of the earth create these winds. Two types of winds supply most of this energy: Trade winds, which…

6 min.
from africa to america

Slavery is an ancient institution. It has taken many forms in many different societies over many thousands of years. It existed, at times, in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Few questioned its morality. In fact, major religions offered justifications for it. How we think about “freedom” and “free labor” today is different, for the most part, from the way our ancestors considered these topics. For much of human history, slavery was an unquestioned part of the “way things were.” THE BUYING AND SELLING OF SLAVES… has a long history. Ancient Egypt and the Roman world rested upon a foundation of slavery. From the 10th through the 16th centuries, slave markets in areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea featured Christian Slavs from the Eastern Adriatic and the Black Sea, as well…

3 min.
the top 3

SPAIN, ENGLAND, AND FRANCE were the nations that transported the most slaves from Africa to the Americas during the period of the slave trade. In total, about 12 to 13 million people left Africa as slaves on European and American ships. About 1.8 million of them died on the voyage across the Atlantic. Most were taken to Brazil and the Caribbean islands. Some were sold in the British colonies in mainland North America. Portugal, the Netherlands, and the United States were other major slave trading nations. 1. SPAIN Spain had the earliest and largest empire in the Americas. It included huge portions of South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Its cities and populations were much larger than those in the English colonies. It also had centralized state and church administrators to…

5 min.
what the americas had

The Europeans who established colonies in the Americas did so for many reasons. One was particularly powerful. This was the desire to profit in any way possible from the enterprises they founded in what they called the “New World.” For the Spanish in South America, gold- and silver-mining proved successful for a time. For those settling in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Brazil, other sources of making money had to be found. It was the European desire for certain agricultural products — sugar, tobacco, rice, coffee, and eventually cotton — that drove the colonizing process. If these goods had not laid a firm economic foundation for the colonists in the Americas, it is likely that many of those colonies would have collapsed quickly. » Solving the ‘Worker’ Problem Yet, before…