Cultura y Literatura
Military History

Military History March 2019

Military History is the nation’s oldest and most popular war magazine devoted to the history of warfare. Topics include naval history, army, infantry and foot soldiers from all branches of the military.

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6 Números

en este número

4 min.
missing on attu

I enjoyed the article “Aleutian Battleground” [January 2019], especially after reading Last Letters From Attu, by Mary Breu, in which she shares the story of the Japanese attack from the point of view of her great-aunt Etta Jones. Mrs. Jones, a schoolteacher, survived the Japanese invasion and spent the remainder of the war as a prisoner, while her husband was executed by the Japanese on the first day. By the way, the only firearm on the island when the Japanese arrived was Mr. Jones’ hunting rifle, which was never used against the invaders. I have a question about Japanese casualties when the Americans recaptured Attu. It was noted that 2,351 were killed and 28 taken prisoner out of the 2,900 defenders. What happened to the 521 other defenders? Doug Ragan COOKEVILLE, TENN. Editor responds:…

4 min.
marines honor victims of beirut barracks bombing

In October the Marine Corps and U.S. officials marked the 35th anniversary of the 1983 terrorist truck bombing of American peacekeepers’ barracks in Beirut, Lebanon. The blast killed 241 U.S. troops, mostly Marines, making it the costliest day for the Corps since the 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima. It remains the deadliest overseas terrorist attack against American citizens. On Oct. 23, 1983, amid the Lebanese Civil War, terrorists in Beirut drove two separate trucks loaded with explosives into buildings housing American and French peacekeeping troops of the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF). One suicide bomber targeted the barracks of the 1st Battalion, 8th Marines at Beirut International Airport. The resulting collapse killed 220 Marines, 18 sailors and three soldiers. The second attacker struck the nearby French barracks, killing 58 paratroopers and…

1 min.
medals of honor for a vietnam marine and an afghanistan medic

President Donald Trump recently presented the Medal of Honor to two courageous American combat veterans who served 40 years apart from one another in very different war zones. Retired Marine Corps Sgt. Maj. John L. Canley, 80, received the MOH for “extraordinary heroism” during the Vietnam War. His actions came amid the Battle of Hue, the largest and bloodiest urban fight of the two-decade conflict. While serving as gunnery sergeant of Company A, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines from Jan. 31 to Feb. 6, 1968, Canley took charge of the company after his commander was seriously wounded. Shrugging off his own shrapnel injuries, he rallied his fellow Marines, establishing a base of fire and breaking through an enemy strongpoint. In the heated house-to-house fighting that followed, Canley repeatedly exposed himself to enemy…

1 min.
war record

Feb. 17–18, 1944 The U.S. Navy conducts Operation Hailstone, targeting the Japanese naval base at Truk Lagoon (P. 48) in the Caroline Islands. The carrier-based attack sinks 15 Japanese warships and 32 merchant ships, destroys more than 250 aircraft and kills 4,500 men. Feb. 19, 1915 After meeting with British Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener, civil engineer Maj. John Norton-Griffiths receives approval to organize Allied tunneling units (P. 30). His diggers ultimately place and detonate mines beneath German positions during the 1917 Battle of Messines in Flanders, Belgium. March 13, 1938 The U.S. Navy launches the light cruiser Phoenix, which survives Pearl Harbor and earns 11 battle stars before being sold to Argentina in 1951. Renamed ARA General Belgrano (P. 40), the cruiser is sunk by a British submarine during the 1982 Falklands…

1 min.
researchers close in on cook’s endeavour

Maritime researchers from the Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project [rimap.org] and the Australian National Maritime Museum [anmm.gov.au] may have pinpointed the wreck of HMB Endeavour—the bark British explorer Capt. James Cook sailed to Australia on his 1768–71 first voyage of discovery. The ship later saw use during the American Revolutionary War and was scuttled off Newport, R.I., in 1778. Launched from Whitby, North Yorkshire, in 1764 as Earl of Pembroke, the 97-foot-8-inch bark was built as a merchant collier. Four years later the Admiralty purchased and refitted the boxy ship as a research vessel, renaming it Endeavour. With Cook at the helm, it departed Portsmouth in August 1768. On April 29, 1770, Endeavour anchored off present-day Botany Bay, New South Wales, becoming the first European vessel to make landfall on Australia’s…

1 min.
paul allen, 65, king of the shipwreck hunters

Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, 65, an avid hunter of notable military shipwrecks in recent years, died on Oct. 15, 2018. In 2016 he purchased and retrofitted the research vessel Petrel [rvpetrel.paulallen.com], whose crew has since boasted a dazzling list of finds. Among the first was the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis, sunk in the Philippine Sea by a Japanese submarine on July 30, 1945, four days after delivering components for the Little Boy atomic bomb to Tinian in the Northern Marianas. Allen’s team also found the aircraft carrier USS Lexington (scuttled off Australia during the 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea) and the destroyer USS Ward (which fired the first U.S. shots of the Pacific War at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941). With Allen’s passing, Petrel’s future is uncertain.…