category_outlined / Kulttuuri ja kirjallisuus
National Geographic HistoryNational Geographic History

National Geographic History March/April 2019

See how National Geographic History magazine inflames and quenches the curiosity of history buffs and informs and entertains anyone who appreciates that the truth indeed is stranger than fiction with a digital subscription today. And that history is not just about our forebears. It’s about us. It’s about you.

United States
National Geographic Society
Lue lisääkeyboard_arrow_down
3,96 €(sis. verot)
19,83 €(sis. verot)
6 Numerot


access_time1 min
from the editor

History’s mysteries are often solved by teams working centuries apart. The oracle at Delphi, ancient Greece’s favorite place for seeking divine advice, confounded many scholars who sought the place where priestesses told the future. Classical accounts described the process: The Pythia (Apollo’s priestess) entered a cavern, inhaled sweet-smelling vapors (called pneuma) emanating from the depths, went into a trance, and then uttered the words of the gods. In the 1890s archaeologists drew on these accounts when they first excavated the site on Parnassós. Unable to find the Pythia’s sacred space and the intoxicating pneuma, they concluded that the vapors were just “urban legends” passed down by the ancients. These early excavations revealed important geologic insights that became apparent to scholars in the 1990s. Combining science with history, an archaeologist, a geologist, a…

access_time2 min
craft brewing in caves: earliest evidence of beer

Humans were downing beers thousands of years earlier than experts previously thought—long before the advent of agriculture. The oldest traces of beer brewing used to date to around 9,000 years ago, but according to research published in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, cereal-based beer was being consumed some 13,000 years ago. Researchers from Stanford University and the University of Haifa in Israel made this discovery in Raqefet Cave on Mount Carmel, near Haifa in northern Israel. The site was once occupied by the Natufians, who lived some 15,000-11,500 years ago. Archaeologists believe them to be among the first people to abandon nomadic practices and opt for a semi-settled way of life. The cave contains many important finds, including a Natufian burial ground with the remains of 30 people. Archaeologists also found tools,…

access_time1 min
beer and bread

THE DISCOVERY in northern Israel of beer production some 13,000 years ago falls into the same timescale as the oldest known traces of bread yet found—between 14,600 and 11,600 years ago. The traces of flatbread, found in Jordan in 2018 and made from wild cereals, were the product of the same Natufian culture that brewed the Raqefet beer. Before the find, the earliest evidence of breadmaking had been dated to about 9,000 years ago in Turkey. Taken together, these finds are leading scholars to consider that crude methods of bread- and beermaking brought such nutritional and social enhancements to communities that they spurred efforts toward ever more refined cultivation of plants and farming.…

access_time1 min
scientist or schemer?

1734 Franz Mesmer, the son of a humble forest warden, is born in Iznang, a small town next to Lake Constance, Germany. 1768 Two years after receiving his doctorate, Mesmer marries Anna Maria von Posch, a wealthy widow. Their Vienna home serves as his consulting room. 1778 After his controversial treatment of a blind pianist is deemed a failure, Mesmer leaves Vienna and moves to Paris. 1784 A scientific commission concludes that Mesmer’s theory of animal magnetism lacks scientific basis. 1815 Mesmer dies in anonymity in the German town of Meersburg.…

access_time1 min
power of placebos

FRANZ MESMER was unable to obtain praise or recognition from the medical and scientific communities for his cures, but his patients gave him glowing testimonials. They described how Mesmer, confident and charismatic, radiated a comforting serenity. His theory that a universal magnetic fluid governed the human body was wildly inaccurate. But Mes-mer believed his powerful magnetism could restore health, and in many cases, his confidence and the trust of his patients resulted in relief. Rather than revealing the powers of animal magnetism, Mesmer’s experiments were some of the earliest documentations of the placebo effect, when treatments work because patients expect them to.…

access_time6 min
rome’s passion for pearls

Satirical Roman writer Martial, remarking upon imperial Rome’s captivation with pearls, described a woman named Gellia who “swears, not by . . . our gods or goddesses, but by her pearls. These she embraces; these she covers with kisses; these she calls her brothers and sisters; these she loves more ardently than her two children. If she should chance to lose these, she declares she could not live even an hour.” Martial’s words would be the first of many commentaries from moralists and satirists on the Roman nobility’s fashion obsession with pearls. In the beginning of the first century B.C. these precious baubles became the ultimate symbol of wealth, power, and prestige in Rome. Many ancient civilizations, from India and Israel to Assyria and pharaonic Egypt, had long considered the pearl…