EXPLOREMY LIBRARY
Science
Apollo Missions

Apollo Missions

Apollo Missions

"That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind...” On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong made the historic first steps on the Moon. In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the lunar landing, this book takes a look back on the innovative program that made one of humanity’s greatest achievements possible. The project was a shining example of what can be achieved when humanity works towards a common goal. In less than ten years, Project Apollo developed the technologies and spacecraft that would take humans to the Moon. Discover the missions that paved the way for Apollo 11’s historic journey, the astronauts who followed in Neil Armstrong’s first footsteps, and the brave crews that risked their lives in the name of exploration and space science. Beyond the Moon missions, Apollo technologies were instrumental in launching and maintaining the International Space Station. With NASA now setting its sights on sending astronauts back to the Moon in the 2020s, Apollo’s legacy is alive and well.

Country:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Publisher:
Future Publishing Ltd
Frequency:
One-off
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in this issue

1 min.
welcome to the apollo missions

“That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind…” On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong made the historic first steps on the Moon. In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the lunar landing, this book takes a look back on the innovative program that made one of humanity’s greatest achievements possible. The project was a shining example of what can be achieved when humanity works towards a common goal. In less than ten years, Project Apollo developed the technologies and spacecraft that would take humans to the Moon. Discover the missions that paved the way for Apollo 11’s historic journey, the astronauts who followed in Neil Armstrong’s first footsteps, and the brave crews that risked their lives in the name of exploration and space science. Beyond the Moon missions,…

3 min.
the apollo era

*Dates in headings are mission launch dates 1961-1966 SA and AS unmanned missions In preparation for the manned Moon missions, NASA conducted a series of tests using various iterations of the Saturn rocket, in order to practice launch, Low Earth Orbit, re-entry and mission aborts. 27 January 1967 Apollo 1 • Test flight, never launched• See page 40 Destroyed during a pre-flight test when a fire in the Command Module tragically killed the crew. July-August 1966 AS-202 and AS-203 (Apollo 2 and 3, re-designated) • Unmanned• Test flights, success After Apollo 1’s launch test disaster, the nomenclature of subsequent missions was changed. Apollo 2 (which was due to be a repeat of Apollo 1) and Apollo 3 (due to be the first test of the Block II CSM) were re-designated as test flights AS-202 and AS-203 respectively, but they were not…

7 min.
the origins of apollo

Kennedy’s speech to Congress On 25 May 1961 in a speech to Congress on “Urgent National Needs”, President Kennedy stated his belief that the US should endeavour to land humans on the Moon by the end of the decade, beating the Soviets to the ultimate prize in the process. Across the nation, his speech was met with huge amounts of support, with little concern given to the risk or cost of such a programme. It was a pivotal moment in drumming up support for the lunar missions and made many believe such an effort was possible. The Soviet Union stunned the world on 4 October 1957 when it announced that it had launched a satellite into orbit for the first time, Sputnik 1. The United Statates of America, which was finding itself…

1 min.
the road to apollo

1958 Founding of NASA 29 July 1958 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is established, a first true national space programme for the US. 1960 JFK elected 8 November 1960 John F Kennedy is elected as the 35 President of the United States after a narrow victory against Richard Nixon. 1961 First American in space 5 May 1961 Alan Shepard becomes the first American to reach space, weeks after Soviet Yuri Gagarin became the first human. 1961 Speech to Congress 25 May 1961 Kennedy tells Congress of his proposal to land humans on the Moon by the end of the decade. 1962 “We choose to go to the Moon” 12 September 1962 Kennedy gives an impassioned and historic speech on why America should reach for the Moon at Rice University in Texas. 1965 First spacewalk 18 March 1965 Alexei Leonov becomes the first person to perform a spacewalk, another major first for…

6 min.
shooting for the moon how nasa trained its apollo astronauts

“We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard,” the 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy said resolutely to a large crowd that had gathered around his podium at Rice University Stadium in Houston, Texas, on 12 September 1962. That day, the politician had laid down a gauntlet to NASA. The space agency’s job was to find the astronauts with the right stuff. Fortunately for them, they weren’t short of those wanting to step up to the challenge. One of the first candidates came in the form of a six-foot former pilot of the US Navy. An individual who had seen action in the Korean War, flying 78 missions for a total…

1 min.
apollo highlights: getting mission-ready

Planting flags and picking rocks It was perhaps one of the most iconic moments of Apollo 11: Neil Armstrong planting the US flag into lunar soil. And he had to train for it in a simulated Moonscape surrounded by ‘lunar rocks’. It was also common practice for all Apollo astronauts to play pretend when it came to collecting samples! Stepping onto the lunar surface It was one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind. Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong had to practice climbing up and down the ladder that led from the Lunar Module – dubbed Eagle – to the lunar surface repeatedly a week before he and his crew launched for the Moon. Walking in reduced gravity On the Moon, Apollo 11 astronauts experienced gravity that meant they ‘weighed in’ at…