鴻海1.7 兆電動車豪賭

裕隆花了六十年都難圓的夢想,這次,鴻海有機會達成嗎? 去年十月十六日,鴻海首次舉辦科技日,聚焦談電動車,董事長劉揚偉第一次喊出二○二五年電動車市占率要達到一成,市場半信半疑。但短短五個月,其股價大漲近六成、衝破一百二十元。 「 市場低估鴻海的能耐,」 喊出一百六十元目標價的外資瑞銀(UBS)報告直指。 它所成立的電動車開放平台MIH,聲勢越來越大,目前已集結國內外上千家科技、傳產業大軍。許多同業檯面上表達遲疑,但有趣的是,如廣達的鼎天、和碩的海華,以及仁寶的安勤,竟然都名列在聯盟中。 沒有造車經驗的鴻海,要闖蕩動輒有百年歷史的汽車產業,還計畫在十月要推出自有車型。 豪賭若成,劉揚偉預估,光是四年後的二○二五年,全球電動車產值將達到六千億美元,而按他為鴻海設下市占率一○%的目標,也就是六百億美元(約合新台幣一兆七千億元)的規模,相當於貢獻現在營收的三分之一。 回顧鴻海過去在短期內大漲,上一次,是二○一七年,受蘋果推出十週年紀念機種iPhone X激勵所致;這一次,卻因為一個它還沒生產的產品:電動車。…

台灣大好機會!元宇宙

元宇宙熱度急升宏達電3 個月漲7 成、輝達近3 成 商機多大? 10年成長4倍 》2030年,全球元宇宙相關產業,產值達2.5兆美元,10年成長4倍 》2030年,全球虛擬+擴增實境產值將破1.5兆美元,為2019年的31 》2024年,VR和AR頭戴式裝置出貨量將達7,670萬台,5年複合成長率81.5% 》2021上半年,數位資產NFT交易金額達25億美元 客群多廣?虛擬演唱會2,770萬人參與 》遊戲平台Roblox日活躍用戶達4,320萬人,Z世代占約7成 》美國歌手Travis Scott在電玩《要塞英雄》虛擬演唱會,2,770萬人參與 》全球第一個虛擬YouTuber絆愛,追蹤數達298萬 臉書執行長 佐伯格:現在起,我們將把元宇宙擺在第1位,而非 Facebook。 現在起,我們將把元宇宙擺在第一位, 而非Facebook。」十月二十九日凌晨,臉書執行長佐伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)在直播中,宣布臉書改名Meta。 不只臉書, 短短一個多月內, 元宇宙(Metaverse)紅遍全球與台灣。…

CHANGES IN CHINATOWN

CHANGES IN CHINATOWN

BORN AND RAISED in Los Angeles’s Chinatown, Glenn SooHoo has witnessed the growth, decline, and revitalization of his neighborhood for 50 years. In the past year and a half, this enclave—and others like it across North America—has been in crisis, buffeted by the twin traumas of xenophobia and a public health emergency. “The virus is hampering business and the tourist industry,” says SooHoo, owner of Phoenix Imports. “The virus didn’t have anything to do with Chinatown, but [with] it being associated as an Asian thing by [then President Donald Trump], people just got that phobia about it.” As historic Chinatowns struggle during the pandemic, it’s worth looking at why residents—and visitors—flocked to them in the first place. Chinatowns have been in the United States for more than 170 years. The first one, in…

台積電再飆3年

台積電再飆3年

很多人忘了,台積第一張大單,其實來自英特爾。 一九八八年,時任英特爾執行長的葛洛夫(Andrew Grove)來到台灣,決定順道過來剛成立一年的台積電看看。 當時台積只有一條移轉自工研院的六吋晶圓產線,三微米製程,「落後英特爾跟德州儀器二.五個世代,但我們良率不錯,讓他印象深刻說,『也許英特爾可以用你們,』」台積電創辦人張忠謀曾在二○一一年美國《聖荷西水星報》的專訪說。 根據清大教授洪世章《打造創新路徑》一書的訪談,當時英特爾提了兩百個刁鑽的問題,台積一一解決,才在一年後通過了英特爾的認證,得以代工部份的處理器與晶片組。 張忠謀曾告訴部屬,為英特爾代工的過程,「顯著提升台積的工程能力。」 更重要的是,有當時全世界最先進的科技公司背書,取得其他廠家的訂單,就容易多了。這是台積成立初期業績起飛的一大關鍵。 台積攻:率先量產七奈米 張忠謀:只是要他們把製造生意讓給我 然而,三十多年後,情況扭轉。二○一八年,台積成功量產七奈米製程之後,終結了英特爾蟬聯多年的半導體技術龍頭地位。 這家巨無霸的產業地位,因此岌岌可危。在個人電腦、伺服器的市佔,也快速流失。…

贏得10倍存活率的癌症真相

病理科醫師、元鼎診所院長曾嶔元,來自一個癌症病史豐富的家族,包括父母在內的多位親人,都因不同癌症過世。儘管他平時已透過飲食控制與規律作息降低罹病風險,卻還是很害怕「家族遺傳」的癌症悄悄找上門,「每個人得的癌症都不一樣,我連特別要擔心什麼癌都不知道。」 為找出自己是否帶有罹癌基因、以便精準防癌,曾嶔元二○一八年自費接受了全基因檢測,報告顯示他身上雖不存在可能導致大腸癌、肺癌等常見癌症的基因缺陷,卻有極少數人才會出現的SDHA基因突變;查詢醫學文獻後,他發現這項突變,「可能」與腦下垂體、腎上腺、腎臟的惡性腫瘤,或是位置不固定的神經內分泌瘤與胃腸基質瘤相關。 「這些癌症和基因突變的案例都非常少,我只要維持健康的生活型態和定期健檢就夠了。」曾嶔元為自己下了診斷。 但一九年例行健檢時,曾嶔元在胰臟附近發現一顆直徑七公分的腫瘤,醫師判讀影像後認為,腫瘤可能是惡性較強的胰臟癌,也可能是神經內分泌瘤,建議他立刻接受手術。做過基因檢測的曾嶔元心情卻很篤定,預期低度惡性的神經內分泌瘤機率較高,先從容地和太太到歐洲玩了一趟,隔了兩個月才住院開刀。…

贏得10倍存活率的癌症真相

謝裕民台股戰狼

這回,他被獵物反咬一口! 台南光洋科大門口,布告欄跑著「拒絕台鋼」四大字。台鋼十五年購併狙擊的對象,遍及鋼鐵、網通、石化、生醫、半導體材料。這麼多年,台股企業在他手中死傷無數,即便此役暫時失手,他仍安安靜靜找機會,眼光繼續尋求第十四、十五家公司⋯⋯。 新一波的金錢遊戲,在沉寂二十多年後死灰復燃,更加野蠻成長。 以股票高質押、高槓桿,進行上市櫃公司購併,這並非新手法,但有一人,操作得比前輩都靈活、精準,他是台鋼集團創辦人謝裕民,人稱「謝會長」。 一九九八本土金融風暴前,國揚集團創辦人侯西峰,接連在股市「借殼」入主多家公司,帶起十餘家企業跟風,狙擊、購併上市櫃公司。其後,侯西峰因護盤股票,被控掏空入獄,當時的禿鷹們,不是走避國外,就是從此一蹶不振。 如今,新的野心家挾低利資金,運用高槓桿進行惡意購併,狙擊財務孱弱、股權分散、家族矛盾的上市櫃公司。 他橫掃鋼鐵、科技業,還驚動台積電企業大老:要小心,他很會找機會!…

Schiit Audio Sol

Schiit Audio Sol

Many established audio manufacturers owe their success, at least partly, to their components’ signature sound. Consider the laidback “pipe and slippers” mien of my 1978 Spendor BC-1 loudspeakers, the rich tonal palette of my Shindo Laboratory amplifiers, or the celebrated drive and timing of late-’50s era Thorens TD-124 and Garrard 301 turntables. Schiit Audio, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2020, is a relative upstart, but I think it belongs in that company. Schiit’s trademark sonic signature is defined by force, what Art Dudley used to call drive. That trait translates as momentum, energy, forward motion, boogie factor, and that other audiophile cliché, “PRaT” (pace, rhythm, and timing). Whatever you call that quality, it is, to me, an essential ingredient of great sound, however new or established the company that makes…

The Conflict Zone

The Conflict Zone

I TOOK THIS PHOTOGRAPH through the window of an abandoned home in a village in western Uganda. As I watched, one wild chimpanzee entered the yard, then another. Though they stared hard at the windows, I knew they couldn’t see me behind the mirrored glass—and I was glad. During past fieldwork, I’d been around scores of wild chimpanzees and shadowed them at close range. Yet until this photo assignment in 2017, I had never tried to hide from chimps. I had never even imagined writing such a sentence. That was before I met the Semata family and saw firsthand how depleted land and forest, and scarce food and crops, can unleash competition between primates, those inside houses and those outside. FOR AS LONG AS I CAN remember, I’ve felt at home in the…

日圓崩壞經濟學

日圓崩壞經濟學

今年以來,日圓匯率直直落,不僅對美元匯率創下六年半新低,日圓的「實質有效匯率」更已來到半世紀的低點。 日圓為何一路崩跌?「弱日圓」對全球金融市場將造成什麼影響?日股買點是否已然浮現?又,台灣一眾「哈日族」們,可以入場換匯撿便宜了嗎?對於上述種種疑問,本刊一一為您拆解。 「這樣換下來,差不多是我近一個月的台幣薪水,這些『憑空』多出來的錢,夠我搭四趟從東京到大阪來回的新幹線,或多住上八晚的五星級飯店……。」說話的,是年約三十歲左右,目前在台北出版業任職的小森。 小森的另一個身分是「哈日族」,月薪不到四萬新台幣的他,平均每年至少要赴日本「朝聖」四次,每年花在旅日的費用至少十二萬元。「疫情前,日圓匯率是一台幣兌三.六日圓,現在約四.三,假設,日圓繼續貶到四.六……,這樣(我每年)換匯,大概就可以省下台幣兩萬六千元左右。」小森在紙上試算著。 若以新冠疫情前飛日本的機票與住宿價格估算,「安排個關東地區四天三夜的單人行,兩萬六的預算綽綽有餘,還能多買一張東京迪士尼門票。」他興奮地說。…

最神祕航海王

最神祕航海王

海運價格持續飛漲,全球貨櫃業進入國力競賽的關鍵時刻,台灣航運三雄的真正實力,在股票市場過度炒作的投機風下,卻被模糊了焦點。 長榮海運由張國華家族主導,睥睨台灣航空、海運界多年;陽明海運則有最大股東官股護體,唯有近洋海運龍頭萬海航運,資歷最久,外界最為陌生。 今年五十五歲的陳柏廷,超過一半人生都投入海運,面對航運業大爆發,這位低調神祕的海王子首度發出感言,砥礪員工,更在這波航運業史上最瘋狂的景氣中,安不忘危地擘畫萬海轉骨變身的下一步。 萬海航運去年整年賺了一一三億元,是前年的三倍多,是大前年的整整十倍。今年光是第一季就大賺了一四六億元,剛剛好等於過去二年的獲利加總。今年,法人預估一口氣要賺超過過去十年的獲利加總。 面對這突如其來的獲利大爆發,讓航運股一躍成為今年上半年台股最吸睛的男主角,外界當然更好奇,身處旋風核心的航運業老闆,是不是更喜不自勝、甚至得意忘形?…

Editors’ Choice

Accessory Loudspeaker Budget Component of the Year Editors’ Choice KEF LS50 META LOUDSPEAKER There is no such animal as a “perfect loudspeaker.” But within its limitations of limited maximum loudness—the LS50 Meta will work best in small or medium-sized rooms—and limited low-frequency extension (the reflex port is tuned to 51Hz), this immaculately finished minimonitor offers an almost complete absence of midrange coloration, a musically satisfying balance, and what I described in my review as a palpable “reach-out-and-touch” soundstage. All this for just $1500/pair! Affordable almost perfection.—John Atkinson AUDIOVECTOR R8 LOUDSPEAKER Of the music-makers I lived with this year, I’d rate the Magico and the Audiovector very close, but the Magico already won a big prize—two of them in fact. The gorgeous-looking Audiovector R8 took me by surprise, doing things with imaging that I’ve never…

Editors’ Choice
宇宙級碰撞

宇宙級碰撞

大約50億年後,當太陽膨脹為一顆直徑可涵蓋地球軌道的紅巨星,我們的銀河系將會撞上鄰近的仙女座星系。這一對星系受重力相吸,越來越靠近,把各自的恆星拋離常軌,拖曳成壯觀的尾巴。相向衝撞的星系核無情地擠壓瀰漫其間的氣體與塵埃,摧毀已存在了將近3/4個宇宙年齡的巨大星系旋臂。 兩星系中心終將合併,而湧向中心的氣體將引起恆星大量生成,新恆星的生成速率會較目前這兩星系的恆星形成率還快100倍以上。此外,星系合併也將提供能量給潛藏於兩星系中心的超大質量黑洞。黑洞成長時會釋出大量的高能粒子與輻射,耀眼的程度將掩蓋兩星系中的所有星光。再過一億年左右,這兩個超大質量黑洞相互繞行,合為一體,強烈重力波迴盪在整個空間。 今日正在上演的星系合併(在早期宇宙中相當常見)嚴格來說並非「碰撞」。星系佔據的範圍內大多空無一物。像銀河系這樣的星系擁有約3000 億顆恆星,恆星平均間隔約五光年,而地球海平面上的空氣密度,是星際空間的氣體密度的1016倍。換句話說,雖然星系合併會產生巨大能量並改變星系命運,但多數恆星在合併時僅擦身而過。…

Magico A5

It’s rare for a Stereophile reviewer to review two loudspeakers in a row from the same manufacturer, but then these are unusual times. Because of the pandemic, Magico’s M2s got stuck here for a year (I know: poor me). By the time they were packed up and shipped out, it was time for a long-scheduled review of the less-expensive, more-massive Magico A5 ($24,800/pair). At $63,600/pair equipped with the no-longer-optional M-Pod footers,1 the now-departed M2 costs roughly 2.5 times what the newly arrived A5 costs. (The A5 comes with mere spikes.) Like all current Magico speakers, both are sealed-box, acoustic suspension designs, which means that at the bottom end, the response falls off at 12dB/octave—slow enough to have useful output a full octave below where the low bass starts trending down. That’s…

Magico A5
Wine wisdom

Wine wisdom

HOW TO… Decant Most Decanter readers will be planning on opening something special for the Christmas festivities, whether it’s that expensive bottle of Bordeaux or Burgundy (see our Christmas guide to vintages, p44), or your favourite vintage Port. But what are the main reasons for using a decanter and what are the key things to remember? The decision on whether to use a decanter will be very much down to individual enthusiasts – there really are no right or wrong answers when thinking about decanting. However, one thing is always worth bearing in mind – you cannot magically ‘age’ a wine by decanting it before drinking. When you decant, what you are doing is exposing the wine to oxygen, which starts to have an effect on many of the complex compounds within…

中國開經濟制裁第一槍,台灣產業準備好了嗎? 一顆鳳梨的跨國戰爭

屏東現場直擊 中國,原是這批佳冬鳳梨的目的地,如今它們的命運,卻是被送進台灣加工廠。 一紙禁令,讓這個在中國售價比對手菲律賓高3成的明星水果,瞬間變賠錢貨。 一顆鳳梨,捲進全球經貿關係重建的風暴,下一個遭殃的,會是誰? 一道中國對台灣鳳梨發出的禁令,為什麼引發如此大的關注,從美國、日本到澳洲官方,都動員起來 這是中國在美國總統拜登就任後、中國兩會前夕,以貿易之名,對台開出的「第一槍」。它重擊的,是台灣主要栽植鳳梨的中南部農民。 雖然,鳳梨每年外銷中國的金額不過新台幣十四億九千萬元,僅占總產量十分之一,從整體經貿損失來看不大。但,將它置於國際格局之下,我們卻能以小見大:鳳梨事件,是否代表北京在美中貿易戰和疫情等風暴後,重新梳理受損的對外關係,而因此對這段期間在國際上吃香的台灣,將展開一波波經濟制裁? 鳳梨之後,下一個會是誰?以台灣對中國依賴最大的電子零組件產業就有逾六十二萬就業人口來看,若未來真的出現連鎖效應,將影響多少人的生計?我們面對這個亦敵亦友的最大貿易夥伴,該有怎樣的心理準備?…

習近平捏出的新中國

習近平捏出的新中國

二○二二年三月二十六日,中國上海市疫情防控領導小組專家組成員吳凡在記者會上宣告:「上海不能封城……,上海在全國經濟社會發展中承載了重要功能。」 短短兩天之後,上海封城,至今未解……。 封城月餘,五月五日的中共中央政治局常委會上,面對外界種種質疑,中國國家主席習近平仍「不改其志」,表示上海疫情防控已取得「重大戰略成果」,更強調要毫不動搖堅持「動態清零」,「堅決與一切歪曲、懷疑、否定中國防疫政策的言行鬥爭。」 政策的瞬間劇變與強硬主導,是上海過去兩個多月的魔幻寫實,也是過去一整年中國經濟與社會的主旋律。 從去年初的互聯網巨頭遭重罰、年中對補教業的上市與資本化禁令,到九月突發的「能耗雙控」事件,乃至今年初多地的封城與封省,在在凸顯出過去這動盪的一年間,習近平那雙「看得見」的手,無時不刻在對中國產業與經濟發展下指導棋。 「簡單一句話,就是『國進民退』……。」長年觀察國際與兩岸產業趨勢發展的台新金控首席經濟學家李鎮宇認為,過去一年的中國經濟,就宛如一個高度可塑的「捏麵人」一般,在中國政府這雙超級巨掌下,正被以習近平為首的中共領導層,用改革開放以來罕見的力道與強度,重新「塑形」。…

Complicated

Even though I’m the editor of Stereophile, I sometimes struggle to get my audio system to play. It’s a little bit embarrassing. Just last night, I put on a record and there was no sound. I figured out the problem immediately: I’d forgotten to turn on the amplifiers. But the reason isn’t always so obvious. Back in the day, our stuff was simple; it just worked. There were power switches, a volume control, a source-selector, maybe a Tape Monitor button. Turn it on, select the right input, set the volume, and put on a record. If there’s no music, make sure the Tape Monitor isn’t pressed. Easy. Today, things are more complicated. There are levels of input selection. Most systems still have a preamp, but other components accept multiple inputs. My phono…

正視美國民兵文化

2008年4月一個寒冷陰雨天,我在美國駕車來到密西根州中部。我隔著車窗詢問路旁一名男子:「今天是野戰日嗎?」他身穿迷彩裝、雙手隨意放在胸前AK-47步槍上,對我點點頭並退到路邊,我沿著窄路駛向一棟老舊紅磚農舍的停車場,四周全是黃豆田,大約已有50 人聚集在農田和灌木沼澤相接處。我所在位置是班克羅夫特(Bancroft)鎮外一名二次大戰退伍軍人的私有地,此處正在舉辦密西根民兵的年度野戰日,主辦單位聲稱是家庭聚會和對外推廣的活動。 空氣中瀰漫著營火燃燒的煙味,一些成員大聲說笑,哀嘆用陳舊防水布搭建的臨時戶外廁所相當不方便,怎麼不像去年一樣租用移動廁所。有幾個人吃著即食口糧(MRE),這類高熱量包裝食品通常發放給野戰軍人,但也能在軍需品店或eBay上買到。 幾乎所有男性都穿著迷彩裝,開心展示新添購的槍枝、戰術背心或其他裝備,笑著敘述過去訓練時發生的故事。參與的女性和孩童比較少,沒穿著迷彩裝,而是平常的衣飾,不過多數人都參加了當天的標靶射擊和其他活動。 歧異與共通…

正視美國民兵文化
iPhone 13 and iPad mini benchmarks don’t tell whole story

iPhone 13 and iPad mini benchmarks don’t tell whole story

In September, Apple announced the new A15 processor in a peculiar way: by comparing its new chip to the Android competition, rather than the A14 that powered last year’s generation of iPhones. We were all left to try to infer the speed of the A15 based on Apple’s claims, wondering if the company was obscuring the performance improvements in the A15 because they weren’t particularly impressive. Recently things have gotten a lot clearer with the first reviews of the iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 Pro, as well as a look at what the iPad mini has to offer. Now we’ve got the cold, hard facts about the A15—and it’s more complicated and interesting than I guessed last week. The net result? Apple is making one chip but using it in three…

原諒霸凌者之後

才小學年紀,我就遭受霸凌折磨。我當時是個胖呼呼、笨拙的孩子;更糟的是,我比大多數的孩子都發育得較早,所以我的身體成為被不斷嘲笑的焦點,同學們抓住任何挖苦我的機會,喊我「大屁股」、「青蛙眼」、「蠢妞」和「小母牛」,還經常指控我偷竊或說謊。老師對霸凌的行為和我的求助置若罔聞。他們要我靜待霸凌消失,說「小孩子就是這樣」、「長大了就沒事了」。在我住的小鎮上,這可不是長大了就會好起來的事,那些吃得開的孩子不但記得我每次的出醜,還不停地重提那些糗事。 上了中學,雪莉轉學過來,加入那群人緣廣的孩子幫,很快成為折磨我的主力,於是霸凌更是變本加厲。他們從未停止拿我的體重取樂,又不忘加油添醋,說我是女同志、和所有男生上床,這樣的謠言滿天飛。他們顯然不知道這兩件事是互相排斥的。幾年過去了,他們又幫我添了一個毒蟲的名號。他們告訴每個人,說我隨時都很嗨,而他們的證據是,因為我對每個人都很友善,即使對方不喜歡我—因為只有吸毒很嗨的人才會對每個人都很客氣? 沒完沒了的霸凌…

原諒霸凌者之後
未來車總司令迎戰關鍵三年

未來車總司令迎戰關鍵三年

九月中,一張標著「Foxtron」黑色電動車的偷拍照片,突然出現在PTT論壇上,讓原本排在一個月後「鴻海科技日」亮相的祕密武器,提早曝光。Foxtron是鴻華先進的英文名,是鴻海與裕隆的合資公司。 「Foxtron的牌子都拍出來了,我們想否認也否認不了,」坐在土城總部接受《天下》專訪,鴻海集團董事長劉揚偉語氣雖然懊惱,「但車長得還不錯吧!」話鋒一轉,他嘴角藏不住笑意反問。 一改之前代工廠隱姓埋名的遊戲規則,在矽谷創業,二○一九年接任鴻海董事長的劉揚偉,二○年起,仿效蘋果等科技大廠舉辦科技日。以鴻海之名,一方面展現技術軍火,一方面設定時間死線,加速鴻海內部與關係企業的轉型速度。 今年,他將在鴻海科技日展示兩台轎車、一台電動巴士。「去年科技日,我承諾組聯盟造車,今年就要讓外界看到成果。」他設定節奏,未來每年科技日,都將是前一年承諾的驗收日。 破除「守成」董事長印象變身總司令,從代工霸主變未來車共主 電動車是劉揚偉一生懸命的戰場。從創辦人郭台銘手上接下董事長的棒子,外界認為小郭台銘五歲、現年六十五歲卻看起來比實際年齡年輕的劉揚偉,只會扮演一名強人羽翼下,「守成」的董事長。…

迷幻藥治精神創傷

迷幻藥治精神創傷

2017年春天,我意外收到一場乍看之下並不適合的科學會議邀請。邀請函轉了兩手才到我手上,會議的詳細內容含糊但有趣。我開車再轉火車到市中心的飯店,穿過一排會議室,終於找到了那間會議室,門牌上的字顯然不對勁:MAPS第三期臨床試驗會議。 第三期臨床試驗是人體藥物臨床試驗的最後一期,通過後能獲得上市許可。這期試驗召募大量志願受試者,以判定藥物的安全性與有效性。試驗過程有開不完的會,花好幾個月仔細審查內容、討論保密協議與合約,不應該由收到三手邀請函的任性科學家來破壞,我當下就覺得這不是我該來的地方。 但是就當我要打退堂鼓的時候,有人從會議室出來,端詳著我並詢問我的身分。令我大吃一驚的是,她回頭朝接待桌子說:「先給她一個名牌,其他的之後再說。」稍後我才知道這位女士是大名鼎鼎的迷幻藥跨領域研究協會(MAPS)首席科學家亞扎爾-克洛辛斯基(Berra Yazar-Klosinski),我在行為藥物學和臨床試驗的研究背景似乎引起了她的注意;會議結束時,我答應和她一起研究,確認亞甲二氧甲基苯丙胺(3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,…

窺探空間與時間的本質

窺探空間與時間的本質

美國華盛頓大學理論物理學家帕奎特(Natalie Paquette)花費很多時間,思考如何增加一個維度。從小圓開始,散射到空間與時間中的每一個點,形成彎彎曲曲的維度,再繞回本身。接著把這些圓縮得越來越小,收緊環圈,直到出現奇怪的變化:這個維度看起來一點都不小,反而變得非常大,就像原本以為很小很近的東西,其實又大又遠。她說:「這是把空間方向縮小,但縮小到一定程度之後,又會出現巨大的空間方向。」 不只有帕奎特一人正在思考這個奇怪的因次遷變(dimensional transmutation)。越來越多採用各種方法研究不同領域的物理學家,不約而同地有了一個深刻想法:空間並非基本,甚至時間可能也不是。空間與時間或許是突現的(emergent),可能源自於自然界中更基本要素的結構和表現。在最基本的現實中,「何處」和「何時」這類問題或許根本沒有答案。帕奎特說:「可從物理學獲得許多線索,了解我們所知的空間與時間並不是基本的。」…

Carried Away

Carried Away

Sarah Jessica Parker is making the bed: With her back to me, she pulls the under sheet taut in swift, practiced gestures, fluffs up the pillows, and spreads the comforter just so, before stepping back to observe her handiwork. Suddenly sensing that I’ve entered the room, she whirls around and smiles. “Oh, hi!” she says. “I’m sorry, I just had to straighten up here.” Despite her glamorous looks—her blonde hair pulled back in a sleek bun and her full-skirted vintage dress worn over a leopard-print button-down, all accessorized with a pair of high, glittering block-heel pumps, a model from her SJP shoe line—she seems more than anything a diligent, efficient mom making sure things are under control at home. (“That bed thing is so her,” the Bravo host Andy Cohen…

The Journey

Before Kataleya Nativi Baca left Tapachula, Mexico, she called her sister from the apartment she was sharing with two other migrants from Central America. “Tomorrow I’m going to be a lot farther away,” she said. Kataleya, 28, a transgender woman, was a pariah in her hometown of San Pedro Sula, in Honduras. Her mother rejected her. Her brother beat her. In a country where spiraling violence is fueled by machismo—exaggerated expressions of masculinity—hundreds of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people are harassed, often violently. A network of rights groups found that more than 1,300 of these individuals have been killed in Latin America and the Caribbean since 2014, 86 percent in Colombia, Mexico, and Honduras. For many, braving the dangerous journey to seek asylum in the U.S. is preferable to…

The Journey

DIGGING FOR TREASURE IS AS OLD AS THE FIRST PLUNDERED GRAVE.

THE URGE TO UNCOVER BURIED WEALTH has obsessed countless searchers, enriching a few and driving others to the brink of madness. “There are certain men who spend nearly all their lives in seeking for—kanûz—hidden treasures,” wrote the British traveler Mary Eliza Rogers after she visited Palestine in the middle of the 19th century. “Some of them become maniacs, desert their families, and though they are often so poor that they beg their way from door to door, and from village to village, they believe themselves to be rich.” Not all the fortune hunters whom Rogers came across were desperate vagabonds. She also encountered sahiri, roughly translated as necromancers, “who are believed to have the power of seeing objects concealed in the earth.” These esteemed clairvoyants, often women, entered a trance that Rogers…

DIGGING FOR TREASURE IS AS OLD AS THE FIRST PLUNDERED GRAVE.
通膨衝擊全解讀

通膨衝擊全解讀

昨晚,我跟供應商談價錢,談到半夜兩點!」一位國際筆電大廠台灣分公司的採購人員一臉苦惱:「談到半夜,對方開的價錢還是很硬。」 他負責筆電各類線材的採購,近來銅價大漲,上游供應商給他的線材報價已經跟著調高,「以前,拗一下,上游會願意砍價,這一次,對方毫不鬆口。」他坦言,隨著各種零配件價格攀高,公司內部也開始有調漲產品售價的討論 早自今年一月,美國十年期公債殖利率就開始反映通膨預期一路向上,現在看來,這片烏雲的黑影不但沒有散去,反倒像是從金融市場一路擴散,慢慢地,迫近一般民生消費。 這一片黑壓壓的通膨烏雲有多沉重?場景回到美國,五月十二日,美國勞工部公布了四月分的消費者物價指數(CPI),年增率達四.二%,遠高於三月分的二.六%與市場預估的三.六%,寫下二○○八年九月以來新高。 若考慮去年同期因為封城導致的「低基期」效應,改以月增幅來看,四月CPI月增○.八%,不僅高於三月的○.六%,亦遠超出市場預估的○.二%,創下近十三年最大增幅;若扣除波動較大的「食品」與「能源」品項,月增率更是創一九八一年以來紀錄。一連串的「意料之外」,讓隔日美股開盤各類指數同步重挫。…

Internet Explorer dies today, but its spirit lives on in Microsoft Edge

Internet Explorer dies today, but its spirit lives on in Microsoft Edge

The day has finally arrived: Microsoft has killed off Internet Explorer. Or has it? The answer to that is: well, sort of. Microsoft has said for years that it plans to replace the venerable Internet Explorer browser in favor of a more secure option: Microsoft Edge. Today, Internet Explorer 11 ends support for most users, which means the browser won’t receive any additional support or patches going forward. If Internet Explorer is discovered to be vulnerable to malware, for example, you’re on your own. But who will be affected by Microsoft’s decision, and what can you do about it? We have the answers below. Here’s the big picture: For years, Microsoft has maintained Internet Explorer alongside Microsoft Edge. But just as in the tale of the three pigs, some of the pigs…

STEFAN BERNHARD

I’m a retired air force fighter pilot from Cologne. You sign up with the air force for 20 years and when you turn 41 you stop flying. I did a tour in Afghanistan which was really hard. Four of my friends didn’t make it. So it was time to leave. Netjets offered me a job to fly private jets. It includes fractional ownership of an aircraft. I like it, it’s really flexible. If I want to fly from Venice because it’s closer to the Alps for the paragliding season, it’s no problem. At the end of the eighties I did a beginner’s course on a hang glider with a friend. Hang gliding felt like flying like a bird. We did a couple of days but then I crashed my motorbike and got…

STEFAN BERNHARD
三井Outlet為何重押台灣?

三井Outlet為何重押台灣?

Profile三井不動產株式會社(母公司) 成 立:1941年 資本額:340,162百萬日圓 董事長:菰田正信 主要業務: 辦公大樓、商業設施、飯店、住宅、物流等 Profile台灣三井不動產 成 立:2016年 資本額:36.76億元 董事長:下町一朗 主要業務: Outlet、LaLaport、飯店、住宅等 「全面六折!」「本館三折起!」類似的告示總是容易吸引消費者的目光;這裡不是百貨公司周年慶,因為一年三六五天,這個告示天天貼著,讓你買到手軟,這裡是Outlet(暢貨中心)。 但如果天真地以為Outlet只是一個販賣打折品的商場,那恐怕就太小看它了,打折、便宜只是其一,實際上,透過優惠折扣,吸引全家大小到此快樂地度過一天,才是Outlet的致勝祕笈。 當台灣整體百貨業的營運已經遇到天花板,自二○一九年之後,總營業額就在三五○○億元上下停滯不前,二一年甚至有可能面臨小幅衰退之際,另一種型態的賣場正在台灣悄悄蔓延,快速成長,那就是Outlet。 百貨業遇瓶頸業績衰退 Outlet快速竄升,激發「新消費力」…

CH Precision D1.5

CH Precision D1.5

There’s a school of thought that maintains that among all hi-fi components, the D/A converter is easiest to perfect or come close to perfecting. Just make sure that every sample is converted accurately, that there’s little rolloff in the audioband, that aliased images are suppressed almost completely, and that background noise is extremely low, and you have a top-quality D/A processor. Use of a high-quality DAC chip is assumed. The transport part of the player is even easier to nail, this thinking goes, because all it needs to do is extract the data accurately, something any box-store CD player can do. Jitter? No need to worry about that, or anything happening in the time domain, as long as the data are transferred to a decent DAC via an asynchronous isochronous interface…

5 things I learned by switching from the iPhone 12 mini to the iPhone 13 Pro Max

5 things I learned by switching from the iPhone 12 mini to the iPhone 13 Pro Max

Over the years, I’ve used iPhones of all sizes. My first smartphone was the original 3.5-inch iPhone, and I’ve carried every size screen at some point—the 4-inch iPhone 5s, the 4.7-inch iPhone 6s, the 5.5-inch iPhone 7 Plus, the 5.8-inch iPhone X, the 6.1-inch iPhone 11, and most recently, the 5.4-inch iPhone 12 mini. So when the iPhone 13 launched, I naturally ordered the one missing from that list: the 6.7-inch iPhone 13 Pro Max. That’s a full 1.3 inches bigger than the iPhone 12 mini I’ve been using for the past 11 months, so it definitely took some getting used to. But along with the size and the weight—both not insignificant hurdles to overcome—I’ve learned some surprising things about the differences between Apple’s smallest and biggest iPhones. PHONES REALLY CAN LAST…

打通膨又不能傷經濟軟著陸的條件

打通膨又不能傷經濟軟著陸的條件

我對鮑爾說,你或許應該考慮升息到三% ……。」約翰. 泰勒(John Taylor)回憶五月六日的那場論壇,「不只是我,那天,許多聯準會官員都建議鮑爾必須加速升息。」 全力奮戰「最惡通膨」 聯準會猛爆升息,利率仍偏低 鮑爾(Jerome Powell),是正在與四十年來最惡通膨奮戰的美國聯準會主席,為了澆熄通膨之火,他在論壇舉行的兩天前,剛剛宣布了美國近二十年來最猛的一次升息,但即便一次調升了兩碼,聯準會政策利率也僅在○.七五%至一%的水準。 至於向鮑爾提出建言的約翰.泰勒,除了有現任美國史丹佛大學教授兼胡佛研究所高級研究員的頭銜外,更是成名多時的國際重量級貨幣經濟學家。他曾經擔任卡特、老布希等美國多位前總統的經濟顧問,亦曾於二○○一年至○五年間出任美國財政部副部長,協助擬定美國貨幣與匯率政策,甚至參與過阿富汗的經濟重建。 不過,泰勒最為經濟學界與金融市場所知悉的,是他在一九九二年提出、可用以評估美國聯邦政策利率最適走向的「泰勒法則」(Taylor rule)。…

Unexpected Twists

Unexpected Twists

SOMETIMES THE BEST IMAGES are not the ones we plan for. Back in 2003 I was a marine biologist studying kelp forests for my Ph.D., but really I was rushing headlong into becoming a photographer. I’d become convinced that I could make a bigger difference in conservation with images than with research. So instead of revising thesis chapters, I began spending most of my time making pictures. Increasingly those photographs were of great white sharks, a newfound obsession fueled by my friendship with biologist Michael Scholl of the White Shark Trust. Great whites were big, bold, charismatic—and in dire need of an image makeover. One summer day Michael alerted me to a puzzlingly large number of sharks near South Africa’s southern tip: nearly a dozen great whites concentrated along a one-mile stretch…

聯發科5年翻身世界第一

專注、想客戶、靈活,這些都是聯發科在5G時代再度崛起的原因; 但,採訪過程中,一位聯發科高階主管跟我們說,這一切其實關乎「定位」。 這是一個如何立志成為領先群的故事……。 精悍的大衛,是如何扳倒巨人歌利亞? 「二○二○年對聯發科技是里程碑的一年,我們相信這只是成長軌跡的開始。」一月二十七日,聯發科執行長蔡力行在法說會上,為該公司去年演出的驚奇逆轉下了註腳。 攤開這個手機晶片龍頭去年的成績,不僅營收創新高、成為全球第三大IC設計公司,其淨利逾四百億元,更較二○一九年大幅成長八成。近期並傳出打入蘋果供應鏈,為旗下品牌耳機供應晶片。 最讓外界瞠目的是,去年第三季,聯發科成立二十三年以來,第一次成為全球手機晶片市占率第一,超越穩居此王位多年的巨人高通(Qualcomm)( 見上圖)。 「現在是聯發科最好的時刻。手機晶片,它們站在有史以來最好的位置,」一位企業市值上兆的美國半導體公司高階主管表示。 資本市場為此躁動。 過去一年該公司股價成長一.四倍,屢創新高,外資紛紛調升目標價。其中里昂證券上看一千三百三十元,以二月二日收盤價為準,相當於還有逾四成漲幅。…

電動車最大贏家台達電

一個公司真的會越老越沒活力嗎?全球最大電源供應廠商台達電是反其道而行。 現在,這家被媒體認為「很不性感」的公司,卻擁有最性感題材:5G、智慧工廠、資料中心、風能與太陽能等再生能源、智慧城市與建築。今年,它可拿下電動車的心臟——動力與電源系統的全球一成市占率。這些題材,帶動台達電股價一年以來大漲一.三倍。 外資研究機構Aletheia發表預估,未來三年內,台達電的電動車營收將可能增為目前的四倍,成為它主要的營收成長動能,並喊出高達四百元的目標價。 與此同時,比它更老的東元是全球馬達前五大,但市值卻僅台達電的十分之一,近來還將經營權大戰搬上檯面;另一家同為生產電源供應器的光寶,股本相當,市值卻只有台達電的五分之一。 幾個台灣企業正遭遇的關卡:二代接班、企業太老難以創新、零組件很難轉型做品牌, 甚至國際購併難成等議題, 它都解開了, 甚至, 它五十年來年年賺錢,年營收複合成長率達二七%。 商周獨家專訪台達電創辦人鄭崇華、董事長海英俊與執行長鄭平,想要找尋他們能與眾不同的秘方。 其實,台達電也曾陷入成功者的詛咒。 一九九九年, 台達電市值超越千億元大關, 鴻海晚一年才追上。當時,…

Grimm Audio MU1

Grimm Audio MU1

In 1979, I visited Philips Electronics’ renowned Research Center in Eindhoven, Holland, to examine a prototype of what would eventually be called a compact disc player. In 1989, I returned to the Eindhoven lab to witness the birth of the first sigma-delta DACs, which eliminated the problem of large linearity errors at low recorded levels in resistor-ladder DACs. Perhaps the century-long presence of the Philips research center in the Netherlands led to the country being a hotbed of science-based audio engineering. Kees Schouhamer Immink, who was responsible for the optical-disc reading mechanism used by compact disc players, is Dutch, as are class-D amplifier authority Bruno Putzeys and loudspeaker designer Martijn Mensink, whose Dutch & Dutch 8C1 set new standards for carefully controlled dispersion. Respected Dutch engineer Peter van Willenswaard was for…

疫苗爭議全解讀

一劑疫苗,倒轉了過去一年來我們所熟悉的世界。 「對面那家CVS藥局就可以打,想打哪種疫苗,隨便你選,」紐約一家飯店的員工告訴台灣旅遊作家法比安。他在五月二十五日飛至紐約,發現那裡五月初,就開放給國際旅客免費施打疫苗。 疫情暴起,民心大亂!台灣和歐美情勢逆轉,冒疫苗旅遊團 在台灣, 許多Line群組瘋傳「 輝瑞二十一天旅美疫苗團」,讓不少旅行社電話被打爆。業者指出,早在台灣出現疫苗旅行團之前,日本旅行社就有五天三夜的美國疫苗團,奧地利旅遊網站也賣起單價約新台幣十多萬元、到塞爾維亞打疫苗的旅行團。 到底,該冒著旅程中接觸的風險,飛到美國打疫苗?還是該留在台灣小心防疫,等待數月甚至半年後才打得到疫苗? 我們對疫苗的焦慮,除了來自本土疫情大爆發,也因為疫苗施打率真真切切與開放國境有關,並與經濟息息相關。本土疫苗到底能不能打?在口水戰與多空炒作中,開發國產疫苗的高端公司,股價上漲、下跌超過百元。…

瘋狂升息時代攻略

這是全球關鍵時刻。美國通膨創四十年新高,俄烏戰爭一觸即發,能源與原物料、黃金價格飛漲,美股、台股大跌,美債殖利率走揚。 通膨與戰爭, 都讓全球更關注美國動態。此時, 美國總統拜登(Joe Biden)、聯準會主席鮑爾(Jerome Powell),變成全球金融市場的總司令。 他們讓全球市場震撼的那個鈕,並不是飛彈的按鍵,而是升息的速度。 美國勞工部二月十日公布統計,一月消費者物價指數(CPI)較去年同期上漲七.五%,創四十年以來最大漲幅,這也是一九八二年石油危機以來,最嚴重的數字。 經濟合作暨發展組織(OECD)最新統計,三十八個成員國的平均通膨率創二十五年新高。在台灣,今年一月物價年增率二.八四%,連續六個月站上二%,已持續突破央行傳統的CPI紅線。 通膨巨獸,讓美國、中國領導人,都坐立難安,甚至公開喊話。 美國總統拜登在前述通膨數字引發恐慌後數小時,就緊急發表聲明:「預估今年底物價將大幅回穩。」但市場卻不埋單,認為只是口水滅火、搶救民調之舉。 美股道瓊工業指數二月十日起兩個交易日跌掉逾千點,《紐約時報》直接打臉拜登:「通膨不是暫時性的。」…

行醫教人抗蛇傷

行醫教人抗蛇傷

馬福汀被蛇咬到的那個傍晚和平常並無兩樣。他住的村子位於印尼爪哇島中部。太陽剛落到村西的拉武火山背後,蟋蟀在樹叢間唧唧作響,畜欄裡傳出山羊的咩咩叫聲。兩盞昏暗的路燈照在一條小路上,凹凸不平的路面通往馬福汀的家——所謂的家其實只是在棕黃色的硬泥土地上搭起光禿禿的磚牆與膠合板,再覆上乾棕櫚葉做為屋頂,如此而已。這是他自個兒蓋的房子,打算等哪天有錢了,再來粉刷牆壁和鋪地磚。 2017年12月某天傍晚,附近的果園和竹林融為黑漆漆奇形異狀的一片,籠罩他的家。五歲的姪兒在客廳哭個不停,馬福汀心想,到商店買些餅乾也許可以哄孩子開心。他走出家門,腳下踩到一個軟軟的東西,立刻痛得往後倒彈。他甩上門,低頭看見左腳踝處被刺出兩個洞,大叫:「我被蛇咬了!」 傷口滲出鮮血,馬福汀慌了手腳。他在附近看見過蛇,而且也有村民被咬過。他模仿在電影裡看到的做法,用一件T恤緊緊紮在受傷的腳踝上方。 沒多久馬福汀就開始吐血,之後便昏了過去。他叔叔把他送到附近一家社區診所,裡頭只有一名值班護理師,但不知該如何處理。於是她在被蛇咬到的傷口上切了一道小小的開口,希望能釋放出一些毒液——然後便將他轉到比較大的地區醫院。…

亞洲塑膠盒女王逆境重生

一輛輛遊覽車開進這偏處宜蘭冬山鄉的工廠。上午第一批進廠的,是五十多位企業二代,他們好奇,這家塑膠盒工廠,怎麼做循環經濟? 下午,換成一百多位宜蘭壯圍國中學生進廠,前台螢幕播放的公司簡介影片,立刻切換成動畫版,迎接這群數位世代。 有專人導覽,產品與產線解說,還有分眾化影片。但這不是一間觀光工廠,而是亞洲最大真空成型食品容器廠。它外銷四十餘國,是美國進口熱壓成型產品的第一大廠,產品遍及沃爾瑪、好市多等國際通路,去年營收達五十四億元,是不折不扣的隱形冠軍。 接待企業二代的,是一位個頭嬌小的女生。「這是專門用來做R料(rPET,即回收塑料)的機器,經過它壓出的膠皮,就可以取得美國食藥局認證(FDA)、歐盟CE認證……,」她介紹眼前這台斥資近億的德國機器,以及工業四.○智慧製造的示範線。 她是金元福執行長陳郁卉。原本,她不是企業接班人,卻在半年內,歷經父喪、弟逝、夫離,她在外界看衰中接下重擔。她是認分的女兒,拚命把公司營收成長四十四倍,站上亞洲第一大,卻迷失了自己。 她自問:「到底,一直賺錢是為了什麼?我人生的意義在哪?」 這是一個人,也是一家企業重生的故事。 分鐘看金元福 成立: 1978年…

制伏Omicron,干擾素有希望

制伏Omicron,干擾素有希望

今年5月,新型冠狀病毒(SARS-CoV-2,簡稱新冠病毒)的確診人數已突破五億大關,亦即全球人口有超過6.4%感染新冠病毒,而死亡人數超過500萬。迄今新冠病毒已出現數百種突變型式,一開始,病毒變異株的感染行為幾乎與原始病毒相同:透過相同的感染模式、相同的傳播速度,並導致嚴重程度類似的疾病。隨著病毒持續突變,這個傳播規則迅速改變。 從2020年9月在英國發現的Alpha變異株開始,病毒在人與人之間更快速傳播,疾病嚴重程度也日益加劇。2020年底出現的Delta變異株不但傳播速度加快,致死率也是所有新冠病毒變異株中最高的。接著,去年底出現的Omicron變異株再度改變了疫情。 Omicron傳染力高但多輕症 即使全球已有高達65.5%的人接種新冠疫苗,Omicron一出現仍快速席捲全球。例如疫苗覆蓋率為全球第一的阿拉伯聯合大公國,有高達97%的國民已完整施打新冠疫苗,仍在今年初爆發一波由Omicron導致的疫情。疫苗開發的速度顯然追不上病毒變異的腳步,難道人類就這樣束手無策了嗎? 今年3月《新英格蘭醫學期刊》刊登了一篇讀者投書,卡達偉爾康乃爾醫學大學(Weill Cornell…

CPU Showdown: Intel’s Alder Lake Core i9 vs. Apple’s M1 Max

CPU Showdown: Intel’s Alder Lake Core i9 vs. Apple’s M1 Max

Intel’s Alder Lake processor is starting to become available in PC laptops and that means one thing: benchmarks! Macworld’s sister publication, PCWorld, posted a review of one of the first laptops with the Core i9-12900HK processor, code-named Alder Lake, and it inevitably got us thinking about Apple’s M1 Pro and Max. To be clear, PCWorld didn’t include Apple silicon in its review—they are reviewing Windows-based laptops and comparing Alder Lake to its predecessor and a new 8-core Ryzen 9 5900HX CPU. Many of the benchmark programs PCWorld used aren’t even available on the Mac or do not have native M1 versions, but PCWorld did run Geekbench and Cinebench, two benchmarks Macworld also uses. And we learned a lot from them. First, let’s check out the specifications for the laptops: 14-inch MacBook Pro M1…

一個台灣3種空氣

如果空氣有價,那台灣是北富南窮,但空氣污染物沒有南北差距,北部排的空污也不比南部少,究竟是什麼情況,讓台灣出現三種空氣? 一個台灣,三種空氣 元旦假期,商周跑遍北中南,拍下台北河濱自行車道、台中七期豪宅、高雄八五大樓,發現空氣一點也不公平,越往南、所得越低、教育程度越低的空氣越髒⋯⋯。 台北市 PM2.5濃度13μg/m3空氣品質良好 高雄市 PM2.5濃度46μg/m3空氣品質不佳 台中市 PM2.5濃度33μg/m3空氣品質普通 前50個空氣最差鄉鎮市集中彰化以南! 二○二一年歲末年終,全台終於迎來雨過天晴的好天氣,北台灣出現了藍天白雲,各大河濱與公園也都出現了享受暖暖冬陽的人潮,PM2.5濃度13微克/立方公尺(μg/m3),空氣品質良好。 再往中部走,台中大肚山陽光普照,眺望台中盆地,七期豪宅區被濛濛的一層霧霾籠罩,連遠處的中央山脈也快要消失在地平線。PM2.5濃度33μg/m3,空氣品質普通,但濃度正在上升。…

GRAMOPHONE DREAMS

GRAMOPHONE DREAMS

THIS ISSUE: Herb expounds on the importance of good cabling in high-quality audio systems, tries the AudioQuest ThunderBird interconnect, and auditions a preamplifier from HoloAudio. I have this friend, a smart, good-looking young physicist from Argentina. Naturally, I call him “Gaucho.” He lives in a glistening-white steel-and-glass apartment overlooking lower Manhattan. I visit him regularly, usually with a group of audio friends, mainly to compare recordings, drink wine, and talk hi-fi. One day, unexpectedly, Gaucho invited me over to listen to his system—just me—so that I could tell him what I “really think” of his system’s sound. His digital source is Roon into a dCS Rossini DAC and Master Clock. His record player is the latest SME 20/3 turntable with an SME V arm and a Dynavector XV-1s moving coil cartridge, which feeds…

FOLLOW-UP

FOLLOW-UP

FALCON LS3/5A GOLD BADGE LOUDSPEAKER The BBC-designed LS3/5a monitor loudspeaker has been in continuous BBC-licensed production in various forms since 1975. During those 45 years, its popularity has never abated. I bought my first pair of LS3/5a’s as a Badger kit from an ad in the back of Speaker Builder magazine. I bought my next pair, used, from a CBS engineer, in 1989; they were rosewood-finished, 15 ohm Rogers that came stock with solid-hardwood rotating wall-mounts.1 Those now-antique Rogers were my daily-driver loudspeakers from 1989 until I reviewed the 15 ohm Falcon Acoustics version in the July 2015 issue of Stereophile.2 Since then, the Falcon version has been an important tool in my reviewing investigations. The Falcon LS3/5a’s primary virtues include: • They throw a wall-penetrating, precisely mapped, extraordinarily detailed soundstage. • They deliver…

炒房之島

這是一個命運的輪盤。九月傍晚,一位神祕女子拜訪《天下》記者的母親。她遞出一張手寫名片,沒有工作單位,只有名字、電話,以及「台南」、「收購農地」字樣的紙片。 「才不只這一個咧!最近好多仲介寫信來,說對阿公的地有興趣,」《天下》記者這才從母親口中,得知善化老家命運的轉變。 炒房現場1:台南 老家農地在南科,記者的田僑夢 外公過世留給三個女兒一塊八百坪,與留給兒子的千坪農地,就位於台南科學園區旁,距離賣半導體設備給台積電的台灣應用材料,不到五百公尺。 這兩塊地,未來將被擴張的南科特定區團團包圍,目前公告現值一坪一.九萬,神祕女子卻開價五萬,只要簽字,三姊妹就有四千萬元瞬間入袋。 《天下》記者突然意識到,在台北租屋的自己,竟然變成準田僑仔。 帶著好奇心,記者回到外公昔日種稻的農地。農地上,阿姨種著菜,依舊歲月靜好。只不過,昔日一望無際的稻田,背景已變成南科廠房,右手邊是高鐵,左邊遠處則是趕工中的兩棟三十層鋼骨大樓。那棟預售屋一坪成交價已破紀錄,達三十六.九萬元。 「以善化生活機能,賣到這價格根本不合理,」在南科工作的台灣應材工程師Sam直言,「善化房價已經跟竹科差不多了。」…

炒房之島
A Quick Zip to Market

A Quick Zip to Market

THE SALWEEN RIVER, known as the Nu in China, is one of the last great free-flowing rivers in Asia. Nearly two decades ago China announced it would dam the Nu. Multiple ethnic groups live in this part of southwestern China, which is called Three Parallel Rivers for the Nu, the Jinsha (Yangtze), and the Lancang (Mekong) Rivers that flow through it and has been named a UNESCO World Heritage site for its rich biodiversity. In 2008 I traveled there to tell the story of this remote region before it was permanently altered. I found that there was very little bottomland along the Nu. Villages hid high above the steep walls of the river’s gorge; a road clung to one side. Few bridges spanned the river. I saw locals crossing by zip…

一群人的願意救活5萬人公司!

友達告別10 年低谷從兩年賠千億,到獲利寫新高! 營收3,707億7年新高 股東權益報酬率29.6%歷史新高 俄烏戰爭,讓大家看到,戰爭可能一夕間來臨的殘酷。而當一個國家,或是一個企業陷入沒有明日的絕望處境時,要怎麼做,怎麼想,才能在絕處再逢生?來聽聽面板大廠友達的故事。他, 曾經是「 台灣股市賠最多的CEO」。 花了十年,他才拿掉這個標籤。 二月十一日,剛舉辦完的友達實體法人說明會上,台灣面板雙虎之一的友達董事長彭双浪宣布,去年是豐收的一年,稅後淨利和ROE(股東權益報酬率),都創下了一九九六年創立以來的歷史新高,一年賺了超過六百億元。事隔十多年,他再次啟動在台灣蓋面板廠的計畫。 曾經,友達連續兩年虧損,累計虧逾一千一百億元,虧最多的一季,一天開門要虧三億元。 最慘的時候,媒體都把面板業稱為「四大慘業」之首,其他三大慘業DRAM、LED、太陽能,友達也有兩項。大家都用前途堪虞來形容他們。「我每個月都從二號(惡耗)開始,沒有一號,」彭双浪說。 他,曾是台股賠最多的CEO 「那時,我們像塊肉被掛在那裡,所有蒼蠅都飛過來」…

HOW TO TASTE

HOW TO TASTE

Tasting is both simple and highly complex. A child can do it (I’m not talking about wine, obviously), and yet it’s a vast subject whose intricacies could fill many books. So how do you go about getting the most out of your wine glass? I’ve talked to some of the world’s best tasters to discuss the tactics that they use when assessing, or just enjoying, a wine. Professional athletes are keenly aware of what affects their form. Wine tasters – especially those on the buying and writing side of the fence – are more likely to promote the myth of the infallible palate (theirs, naturally). Happily, that conversation is now changing as we learn more about our olfactory and taste systems. ➢ ‘The wine taster’s instrument is not only the nose but…

Going Ever Deeper

Going Ever Deeper

ON A CLOUDLESS SPRING DAY in southern Mexico, I follow four cavers over a hill studded with pine trees, down 49 dirt steps, and across a grassy field. We approach a towering rock face on the side of a mountain so enormous that it’s difficult to take in all at once. But what drew me here, along with 69 world-class cavers from nine countries, lies at its base. Beyond a gash that cuts low across the rock face is Sistema Cheve—a cave with the potential to be the deepest on Earth. As the geologic cathedral comes into full view, I hear a quiet expletive escape Corey Hackley, the caver just ahead of me. This is his fifth year exploring Cheve, and its grandeur still fills him with awe. “The scale of this…

How Apple’s new MacBook can avoid the same old mistakes

How Apple’s new MacBook can avoid the same old mistakes

The Apple rumor mill has been churning lately with reports that Apple is readying a new consumer laptop that’s thinner than the MacBook Air, available in various colors, and possibly equipped with the next generation of Apple silicon. Of course, it could very well be an update to the MacBook Air, but it seems to me that Apple is likely taking another crack at replacing its iconic notebook. Apple has tried to replace the MacBook Air before—a disastrous attempt that ended up with the cancellation of both of its potential replacements and the revival of the Air. If Apple is indeed trying again, will this time be different? Will Apple’s customers, who appear to adore the MacBook Air, follow the company’s lead? It all depends on how Apple approaches the transition—and…

MEASUREMENTS

MEASUREMENTS

I examined the amount of timing uncertainty—jitter—in the Grimm Audio MU1’s AES/EBU output using my Audio Precision SYS27221 system’s digital oscilloscope function. I overlaid successive snapshots of the MU1’s AES/EBU output, taken over a 60-second time window, to show what’s called an “eye pattern.” To make things as difficult as possible for the MU1, the AES/EBU link was a 45' length of Canare 110 ohm balanced interconnect and the data represented the 24-bit Miller-Dunn J-Test signal sampled at 44.1kHz. With an ideal transmission system, all the pulse transitions in the datastream will overlay one another to produce an image of a wide-open “eye,” with just one trace visible. Fig.1 was taken with the original 44.1kHz data (no upsampling) plotted over one “unit cycle.” The eye is wide open, with no blurring…

Hidden Narratives

ON HER DAYS OFF, New Yorker Cheyney McKnight might pull on leggings and a T-shirt or an African-print dress. But it takes a bit longer for her to get ready for her day job, when she dresses in a chemise, a corset, and three layers of petticoats topped by a cotton gown and a fabric head wrap. McKnight is a 21st-century Black American, but the historical interpreter and founder of Not Your Momma’s History specializes in portraying enslaved and free people during the 18th and 19th centuries in the United States. Drawing on almost a decade of work at living history sites including Virginia’s Colonial Williamsburg, she might dress as an enslaved person to demonstrate hearth cooking at a Virginia plantation or depict a free Creole woman during a New Orleans…

Hidden Narratives
藏金聚落 直擊大台中奢華爆買力

藏金聚落 直擊大台中奢華爆買力

四月底,全台灣商用不動產最聚焦的話題,就是高鐵台中站正對面的超級大案──總開發面積十五.八三公頃,未來將規畫打造的「超級娛樂購物城」,於四月二十八日開標。這塊地上權七十年的商業用地,預計投資金額超過一五○億元,市場傳出包括國泰人壽、富邦人壽、南山人壽、新光三越、微風廣場等全台A咖聚集,都已磨刀霍霍準備投標。 「台中消費力太旺盛了,商用不動產熱到燙手,我上周曾在一天內,接到五個台中案子的委託,其中有商場評估、設計、市場調查等。過去一個月,我們有超過一半的時間都待在台中,這是從業以來沒有見過的情景。」房市專家瑞普萊坊市場研究暨顧問部總監黃舒衛表示。 商用不動產交易火熱 娛樂商場拔地而起A咖搶標高鐵購物城…

The Web That Sheryl Built

When she announced her resignation as chief operating officer of Meta Platforms Inc. on June 1, Sheryl Sandberg posted an essay celebrating her long partnership with Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg and recounting her achievements there since 2008. She brought up Lean In, of course, and the company’s 3 billion users, but barely alluded to her most important contribution to the business of technology. When discussing her first meeting with Zuckerberg at a party in 2007, Sandberg wrote that she was familiar with “The Facebook” at the time, but she also “still thought the internet was a largely anonymous place to search for funny pictures.” This account, if true, represents an almost criminal understatement of Sandberg’s own achievements to that point. When she began talking with Zuckerberg, Sandberg wasn’t some internet neophyte;…

The Web That Sheryl Built
FOLLOW-UP

FOLLOW-UP

AUDIO RESEARCH REFERENCE 6SE LINE PREAMPLIFIER Jason Victor Serinus’s first impressions of this $17,000 tubed preamplifier1 in Stereophile’s November 2020 issue2 were very positive: “Am I really getting paid to do this?,” he wrote, calling it “some of the most polished, transparent, and arresting sound I’d heard from my system.” But as his auditioning resumed after a break of a few days, he discovered that the REF 6SE sounded very different than it had a few days earlier. “Much of the tonal beauty that had momentarily caused me to hold my breath remained,” he wrote, “but the shiny polish and transparency that had knocked me over was gone.” After some investigation, JVS found that the REF 6SE was very sensitive to system tuning. “The essential building blocks—the components—remain unchanged, but the context…

INDUSTRY UPDATE

INDUSTRY UPDATE

GERMANY: WUPPERTAL AND MUNICH Julie Mullins It’s no secret that the pandemic has forced an unprecedented number of audio show cancellations and postponements, in 2020 and into this year. Now, High End Munich, which was canceled in 2020 and was slated for May 13–16, 2021, has been rescheduled for September 9–12, 2021. These changes were announced via social media and a press release from the presenting organization, Wuppertal, Germany–based High End Society. (Previously, the High End Society told Stereophile that the show’s alternate dates were December 6–9, 2021, which we reported in our December issue. We were later informed that those dates were “only for unforeseen circumstances” and “not intended for publication.”) The High End Society is the organization behind several European audio shows including the flagship High End Munich and the…

THE BLACK PHARAOHS

IN THE YEAR 730 B.C., A MAN NAMED PIYE DECIDED THE ONLY way to save Egypt from itself was to invade it. The magnificent civilization that had built the Pyramids at Giza had lost its way, torn apart by petty warlords. For two decades Piye had ruled over his own kingdom in Nubia, a swath of Africa located mostly in present-day Sudan. But he considered himself the rightful heir to the traditions practiced by the great pharaohs. By the end of a yearlong campaign, every leader in Egypt had capitulated. In exchange for their lives, the vanquished urged Piye to worship at their temples, pocket their finest jewels, and claim their best horses. He obliged them and became the anointed Lord of Upper and Middle Egypt. When Piye died at the end…

THE BLACK PHARAOHS
互探性格有收穫

互探性格有收穫

摘自THE GLOBE AND MAIL 去年春天,第一次封城初期,每天探視年邁母親的責任落在我的肩上。我不需要進辦公室工作又是獨居, 社交接觸更有限,所以能確保她的安全。 哥哥嫂嫂則負責每週幫母親採買食物(他們會把東西放在側門旁邊),以及每月一次的剪髮(她端坐在後院正中央那張老舊發灰的白色草坪椅上)。 母親今年88歲,獨居在退休後與父親一起搬入的家裡。 父親大約在12年前過世。他們即將迎來結婚半世紀的日子,他卻病倒了。 當然,我母親還算幸運,兩個兒子和三個孫兒都住在附近,我和哥哥也幸好能看望她,但是看望她時情形會是怎樣,我心裡也沒底。我和母親很早就體認到「彼此個性不合」,即使我已近花甲之年,我們之間仍然會因歧異而產生矛盾。她看重紀律與秩序,我則喜歡隨興而為。能言善辯是我們的共通之處, 但是彼此以言相對時,卻也如刀光劍影。 剛開始,我故意將探訪安排在她每天下午在衛星電視上觀看希臘遊戲節目的時段。用這種方式破冰果然管用:很快地,我們就一起支持同一位參賽者,或是評比各位主持人的魅力。 母親很驚嘆地發現,…

MEASUREMENTS

MEASUREMENTS

Because of the Magico A5’s bulk and weight, I drove my test gear to Jim Austin’s apartment to perform the measurements in situ. As always, I used DRA Labs’ MLSSA system, an Earthworks microphone preamplifier, and a calibrated DPA 4006 microphone to measure the Magico A5’s behavior in the farfield. (We maneuvered one of the 180lb speakers, serial number 000407, onto a dolly and rolled it so it fired across a room diagonal and was maximally distant from the sidewalls.) I used an Earthworks QTC-40 mike for the nearfield and spatially averaged in-room responses. (For the latter, the loudspeakers were in the positions where JCA had auditioned them.) Magico specifies the A5’s sensitivity as 88dB for 2.83V at 1m. My estimate was slightly lower, at 86.5dB(B)/2.83V/m. The A5’s impedance is specified…

How the M1 Pro and M1 Max open up new possibilities for the Mac

How the M1 Pro and M1 Max open up new possibilities for the Mac

The other shoe has finally dropped. A year after the release of the first M1 Macs ushered in the Apple silicon era for the Mac, Apple has addressed how it plans to serve the needs of users for whom iPad-level performance, impressive though it might be, just isn’t enough. With the October announcement of the M1 Pro and M1 Max, Apple has connected the dots and revealed two new chips that propel the MacBook Pro to new heights. Two connected dots make a straight line–and that line points to the future of the Mac. Here’s a look at what might be coming next. PUSHING THE PRO It seems obvious that the M1 Pro and M1 Max chips are destined for computers beyond the 14- and 16-inch MacBook Pros. Even though they’ve been engineered…

Sonnet Morpheus

Sonnet Morpheus

D/A CONVERTER Playlists embody who we are. We use musical affinities to understand (or at least categorize) others, not only as evidence of their aesthetic discernment but also of their emotional and political affiliations, which amount to an entire worldview. In other words, the database of favorite music that we carry around in our brains is no laughing matter. So, one of the most unexpected—and rewarding—things that can happen in music fandom is a complete and sudden inversion of one’s beliefs. Which brings me to the perennially touchy subject of Steely Dan, a band that cleaves the ranks of listeners like a gold-plated katana. Here, I’m not talking about the likable, slightly anodyne early records but about late-career (but pre-reunion) Dan, particularly Aja and Gaucho, on which Donald Fagen and Walter Becker…

台幣升值壓力關鍵報告

一封罕見的臉書「求救信」、一項即將出爐的美國政府人事任命案,以及一篇「『圖』帶玄機」的匯率報告,三條不同的敘事軸線、共同交織而成的,是一場「困局」,一場讓中央銀行總裁楊金龍深陷其中的「新台幣困局」。 在這場困局當中,一邊,是美國老大哥可能的貿易制裁;另一邊,是國內業者的悲情吶喊。楊金龍跨出匯率泥淖有無可能?進退維谷的央行,最終是否能找出與強台幣「共處」的解方? 粉絲專頁是在二○一八年底成立的,兩年多來,中央銀行的臉書貼文多半是單調的圖表、生冷的政令。於是,雖然只是加上了不太精美的插畫,但二○二一年一月七日的這則貼文,仍是央行粉專頁面最活潑的一次亮相。 然而,難得擺出輕鬆姿態的貼文,其實卻是一封極具重量的「求救信」。 「同舟共濟,穩定匯市大家一起來」,這是求救信的標題。要救的,是「匯市穩定」;求救的人,是央行總裁楊金龍。 二○年三月至今,新台幣對美元匯率在十個月內從三十元以上幾度剽悍升破二十八元,二一年一月十三日盤中,改寫二十三年半以來新高。但過去二十年來總被認為能夠「阻升新台幣」的央行,這一次,干預匯率的手,幾乎已被綁上重重鎖鏈。…

台幣升值壓力關鍵報告
台積電翻轉鐵鏽之城

台積電翻轉鐵鏽之城

鐵鏽之城(Rust Belt city),是曾有輝煌重工業,如今卻失去活力的城市。在台灣,指的是高雄。曾經的世界第三大港,現在迎來歷史契機。《天下》獨家取得規劃報告,已荒廢多年、嚴重土壤污染的兩百公頃煉油廠,預計在兩年後,蓋出兩座十二吋晶圓廠。 台積進駐,可望成為港都轉型升級、擺脫低薪的最後一片拼圖。董事長劉德音原本斷言,近期不會投資高雄,為什麼不到一年就急轉彎?晶片大缺貨、百年大旱、加上政治人物的野心與效率,讓高雄人的夢想成真。 就像美國的「鐵鏽之城」匹茲堡,成功翻身為AI、機器人新聚落;北高雄也即將脫胎換骨,二十公里廊道,將有數萬名科技新貴,乘著捷運在四座高科技園區穿梭。新竹、台中、台南之後,終於,輪到高雄了。 二○二○年九月二十三日,國際半導體展論壇開始前,主講者台積董事長劉德音一臉嚴肅地現身,並罕見地主動在入口附近站定位。 「董事長有些話想跟大家說清楚,」現場人員小聲地說。 媒體立刻蜂擁而上,在他身邊圍得水洩不通。 「最近報紙上在講,台積未來在哪邊建廠、要不要去高雄?」劉德音開門見山,「報紙寫成我們要去,所以我們會跟政府,及各個管理局解釋清楚。」…

A Chinese cartridge manufacturer surfaces

A Chinese cartridge manufacturer surfaces

What? Suddenly a new Japanese cartridge manufacturer? That’s what I was thinking when Mockingbird Distribution’s Phillip Holmes dropped three cartridges on me from DYLP Audio. Never heard of them—but then I’d not heard of MuTech either when Holmes sent me one of that company’s $4500 RM-Kanda (now Hyabusa) moving coil cartridges, which I reviewed in the March 2019 issue’s Analog Corner.1 If that cartridge is not on your moving coil radar, you ought to put it there. Holmes sent three made-in-China DYLP Audio cartridges: the MC Ruby-1, the MC100 Mk II, and the Mono. All are part of the Windbell series, and all are presented well in nicely finished wood boxes with QR codes on the glossy outer packaging that you can scan to access the company’s website, lpaudio.cn. Go there,…

RECORD REVIEWS

RECORD REVIEWS

EDITOR’S PICK RECORDING OF THE MONTH NEWVELLE RECORDS SEASON FIVE Pablo Ablanedo, Dave Douglas, Sullivan Fortner, Elan Mehler, OWL Trio, Rufus Reid, Carmen Staaf, Patrick Zimmierli Newvelle Records NV025–30 (6 LP) 2020. Reviewed from 16/44 AIFF files. Elan Mehler, prod.; Marc Urselli, eng. If Newvelle Records is any indication, jazz’s future looks bright. Since 2015, the New York label has produced four series of artist-curated, all-analog, subscription-only box sets of vinyl records with superb fidelity and top-tier musicians performing original material. Highlights included pianist (!) Jack DeJohnette’s Return, guitarist Gilad Hekselman’s Eyes of the World, bassist John Patitucci’s Irmãos de Fé, tenor saxophonist Noah Preminger’s Preminger Plays Preminger, and guitarist Lionel Loueke’s Close Your Eyes. Newvelle co-founder, producer, and house pianist Elan Mehler describes the label’s house sound as “honest, warm, straightforward.” Like classic labels…

Are We Born to Wander?

Are We Born to Wander?

ILLUMINATING THE MYSTERIES—AND WONDERS—ALL AROUND US EVERY DAY IN THIS SECTION How Moths Weather Rain A New Loo for Astronauts Volcanic Lightning The Craft of Clock Repair I’VE BEEN PUTTING MY PASSPORT to good use lately. I use it as a coaster and to level wobbly table legs. It makes an excellent cat toy. Welcome to the pandemic of disappointments. Canceled trips, or ones never planned lest they be canceled. Family reunions, study-abroad years, lazy beach vacations. Poof. Gone. Obliterated by a tiny virus and the long list of countries where United States passports are not welcome. It is not natural for us to be this sedentary. Travel is in our genes. For most of the time our species has existed, “we’ve lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers moving about in small bands of 150 or fewer people,” writes Christopher…

Respect the music

In early May, some of us in the music press got an advance look at what was coming soon from Apple Music. Apple announced that, following the example of Tidal, Qobuz, and Amazon Music HD, the company would no longer deal in AAC, their improved (but still lossy) MP3 equivalent. Henceforth, all Apple stereo downloads and streams would be at at least CD resolution; many tracks would be offered in higher resolutions, up to 24/192. Apple estimated that by the end of 2021, 75 million songs would be available at resolutions of 16/44.1 or better. That’s big news, but the Apple people on the call played it down. The improvement wrought by lossless over AAC is small, they suggested, even difficult to hear. Apple had long claimed AAC was “virtually indistinguishable”…

The Mola Mola Tambaqui

The Mola Mola Tambaqui

Since the plague arrived, several of my closest audio friends have been chattering and bugging me constantly, not about masks, vaccines, Trump, or Biden but about Bruno Putzeys’s digital-to-analog converter, the Mola Mola Tambaqui. They’ve been sending emails and texts like pesky kids: “Herbie! Have you tried the Mola Mola? Come on man, what’s taking you so long? Is Putzeys’s DAC better than my MSB? Or the dCS Bartók? Or the Holo-Audio May?” I don’t mind—I like it when people pester me about products they’re excited about. That type of revved-up, need-to-know anticipation is what keeps our shared audio dreams going and growing. I get extra-happy when they are gushing about DACs. Today, digital converters, both A/D and D/A, define the leading edges of audio engineering, and we need them to keep…

After the M1, these intriguing Apple silicon mysteries still remain

After the M1, these intriguing Apple silicon mysteries still remain

The launch of the Mac Studio (see page 54) was a big moment for Apple. Following years of preparation, that launch marked an important milestone in the Mac’s journey. Apple exec John Ternus’ declaration that the M1 chip family is complete marks the end of the first Apple silicon product cycle. But the wheel keeps turning. The first cycle answered numerous questions we had less than two years ago—but many more remain. To paraphrase Winston Churchill, this is only the end of the beginning. MYSTERIES REVEALED Before the Apple silicon transition was announced in June 2020, there were many questions about how it might work. Many of us had concerns that Apple’s processors, designed for the iPhone and then beefed up for the iPad, would not be able to handle the needs of…

Wilson Audio Specialties SabrinaX

Many companies in high-end audio and elsewhere use a trickle-down approach to advance their products. The process begins with the development of a suite of new technologies, capabilities, components, or whatever the relevant entities might be. Typically, it’s a flagship product that functions as the impetus, target, and first deployment of the new technologies. Subsequently, the new technologies trickle down to other models, each one incorporating a subset appropriate to its price point. Looking at Wilson Audio’s products, it is natural to assume that they use a trickle-down approach, but that’s not really how it works. The majority of the development effort is focused from the start on things that will be used in all, or at least several, of their loudspeaker models. The reason it works, Daryl Wilson says, is…

Wilson Audio Specialties SabrinaX

AS WE SEE IT

THIS ISSUE: Recorded music’s bright future. I wrote about the music industry’s impressive recovery in the February 2022 AWSI.1 Robust LP sales were a headline item of that report, but they’re a sideshow: Paid-subscription streaming is what is bringing the industry back. When I wrote that, 2021 wasn’t quite over, so year-end financials weren’t available. They’re available now. According to the Recording Industry Association of America, in 2021 recorded-music revenue reached $15 billion, an astonishing $2.9 billion—19.3%—increase over 2020. That increase is probably exaggerated by COVID-suppressed 2020 revenue—physical media sales were certainly down—but 2020 revenue was still $1 billion higher than 2019’s. Numerically, 2021 recorded-music revenue set a new record: $400 million higher than the previous record high, in 1999—the year before the start of the great decline, when illegal file sharing nearly broke…

親人變仇人

翁婿之爭戰火延燒! 五月初,南京東路金寶大樓旁的樓房,掛起一張大型廣告看板,影射許勝雄的兒子許介立,掛名領取員工認股高達六千多張股票,這場翁婿之戰,像八點檔一樣,週週上演新劇碼…… 大江東去,浪淘盡,千古風流人物⋯⋯」 金仁寶集團董事長許勝雄,最喜歡他辦公室門外鑲嵌在牆上的蘇軾《念奴嬌.赤壁懷古》。 他最愛這詞,是因為它總會提醒他:「歷史上不管多偉大的人,兩腿一伸,帶不走任何一片雲彩。」「只要想通了,到底有什麼好爭的,沒有啊!」 這理念,讓他成就台灣筆電半壁江山,沒有金寶,就沒有之後的仁寶與廣達。 由金寶開枝散葉的人才如陳瑞聰、林百里、溫世仁,讓台灣吃下全球八成筆記型電腦占有率。 他,也成為政商界人脈最廣的企業家,他是總統府資政、海基會代理董事長,曾任工業總會、電電公會等多個公協會理事長,所有人都是喚他一聲「理事長」。 但不爭的他,從商五十年之後卻出現傷自己最深的敵人—他的前女婿:金寶前總經理沈軾榮。 這場仗,沒有經營權的問題只有毀滅戰的問題! 今年三月下旬,許勝雄前女婿沈軾榮,無預警提出十席董事名單,宣告他要參與今年金寶股東會改選,爆發台灣第一宗躍上檯面、翁婿對決的經營權爭奪戰火。…

Won’t get fooled again

I’m excited about the return of live music to New York City. I’ve attended several classical concerts in the last few weeks, and in a week or so, I’ll take in a show at the City Winery: Suzanne Vega. I haven’t yet made it back to New York’s amazing jazz clubs—the Vanguard, the Blue Note, Smalls—but I look forward to doing so soon, especially to dropping in on my jazz local, Smoke,1 when it reopens in a few weeks in new, larger digs. What I’m most excited about, though, is the resurgence of recorded music. It has been almost a quarter-century since the internet almost took down the recorded-music industry. For a thorough account, read Stephen Witt’s book How Music Got Free: A Story of Obsession and Invention,2 but here’s the story…

When ‘Natural’ Disasters Aren’t

When ‘Natural’ Disasters Aren’t

IN THIS SECTION Woodpeckers and Fire Moonlit Rope Walk Artworks From Snares History in Their Words ILLUMINATING THE MYSTERIES—AND WONDERS—ALL AROUND US EVERY DAY AT A NEWS CONFERENCE in mid-August of last year, California’s governor, Gavin Newsom, announced that there were 367 “known” wildfires burning in the state. “I say ‘known’ fires,” Newsom said, “but the prospect of that number going up is very real.” A couple of days later the number did, in fact, increase, to 560. A few weeks after that, many of the blazes were still burning, and one—the Doe fire, north of Santa Rosa—had grown into the largest conflagration in California history. The smoke from the state was so bad that it veiled the sun in New England. By the time most of California’s flames had been put…

拜登規則

拜登規則

我們是美國,沒有什麼事情是我們無法一起做到的!」美國時間七月四日晚間,美國總統拜登在白宮南草坪舉辦的國慶日園遊會上,用這段話,為將近十五分鐘的致詞作結。 這場約千人出席的「派對」,相較於七月一日在北京天安門廣場舉行的中共建黨百年慶祝大典,規格顯得迷你;拜登著重美國如何逐漸擺脫疫情陰霾的談話,也明顯少了中共總書記習近平一番警告外來勢力恐將「頭破血流」的霸氣。 兩大強權,一周內的兩場慶典,東方巨龍的聲勢更為浩大,但華裔美籍的中國研究專家裴敏欣在中共建黨百年大典隔天撰文評論,對中國而言,「拜登,可能是更可怕的敵人。」理由是:「不同於川普以侮辱、威脅和關稅疏遠盟友,拜登修復了美國的聯盟,成功形塑一條相對團結的抗中戰線。」 六月,當台灣社會聚焦於新冠疫情,太平洋另一端的拜登政府則是連續出手,從最外顯的地緣政治,到5G戰、科技戰、金融戰,都像是在這一個月內完成了關鍵布陣,上任至今許多曖昧或決斷的背後意義,也似乎在此一個月間豁然開朗,攸關全球政經格局的「拜登規則」瞬間清晰──如同裴敏欣的解讀,這是一套「比川普更兇狠」的對中戰略。…

艾比的農場

艾比的農場

她七歲時,星期日下午在鄉間偶爾說了一句話,這段故事就此開始。「我長大了,要有個農場。」我和她爸爸一笑置之,不以為意。 大約一年後,我們從佛羅里達回家途中,在喬治亞一家骯髒的路邊茶室歇息,她再次說出決心——聽來令人頗感不安。艾比的鼻子翹得高高的,對茶室的骯髒破爛露出鄙夷的神情,她伸出來的紅辮子與那張雀斑點點的臉成直角。 「你的雞不好吃嗎?」我問。 「我還沒嘗呢,」她漠然說,「我正在想我長大了,我的農場旁邊要設個乾乾淨淨的茶室。是一根根圓木頭搭的,有花格子布窗帘。侍女的帽花邊漿得筆挺,要是她們遲到,我就打她們耳光。」 我嚇得倒吸一口涼氣,得罪了那老闆,我匆匆瞥他一眼,便把艾比趕到汽車那邊去。 這時我心裡模模糊糊地感覺有點不安,為想沖淡我們這八歲女兒念念不忘要有個農場的不健全心理,便買了一匹純血母馬給她,寄養在康乃狄格州一家氣息甘香撲鼻,收拾得整整齊齊的馬房裡。 這個辦法真靈——不過只靈了大約一個星期。後來有一天,她帶着興師問罪的神情,把馬牽到我面前,大聲叫嚷:「您瞧這馬的蹄子!蹄鐵簡直要掉了!要是我們有個農場……」…

一起挺過去台灣關鍵14天戰疫

一起挺過去台灣關鍵14天戰疫

「老兵聽到炮彈飛過去的聲音,就知道事情不太對了……。」 台大急診室主治醫師石富元經歷過二○○三年SARS(嚴重急性呼吸道症候群)疫情的災難,十八年後,老兵竟然又遇到同樣嚴峻的狀況。五月十四日開始,台灣新冠肺炎(COVID-19)疫情猛爆惡化,從十五日的一八○個本土病例到十八日的二四○個本土病例,社區感染擴大,過去的太平好日子,忽然不見了。待過沙場的,嗅覺總是特別靈光,石富元苦笑,「兩、三周前,我就一直跟朋友說,能取消聚餐就盡量取消。」 疫情爆發後一年多的時間,「台灣馬照跑,舞照跳。」 但身處防疫第一線,石富元清楚知道病人不見得會一五一十交代自己的暴露史,再看到華航機師、諾富特飯店事件、宜蘭遊藝場病例,他已經嗅到,「風險明顯在堆高。」 風險積累著,而且現在它們凝結成巨大的壓力球,破空而來。 亞東醫院驚天96小時的啟示 台灣防疫進入新階段 亞東醫院五月十七日爆出九名院內感染個案,「院內感染」聽起來很不祥,也勾起人們對SARS疫情期間,和平醫院封院的恐怖回憶。人在火線上的亞東醫院副院長邱冠明,談起院內感染的始末,「疫情慢慢悶著,到了上週,所有狀況都變得有感……。」…

MQA again

THIS ISSUE: MQA surfaces. MQA has once again floated to the surface of the perfectionist-audio pond—not belly-up as some have hoped but forced there by relentless pursuit by anti-MQA predators posing as impartial jellyfish. In case you’ve been living amidst the seaweed at the bottom of the pond, MQA is a thing that’s done to digital audio data—sort of a codec that is said to reduce the “blurring” repeated digital conversions cause. For high-resolution audio, MQA compresses data into a much smaller file or stream while retaining, it is said, the sonic benefits of the original high-rez audio (and also of “deblurring”). MQA appears to be genuinely clever and legitimately new, implementing post-Shannon developments in sampling theory that have not previously been applied to digital audio.1 MQA is controversial, for good reasons. In…

TOO HOT TO LIVE

TOO HOT TO LIVE

THE HUMAN BODY HAS EVOLVED to shed heat in two main ways: Blood vessels swell, carrying heat to the skin so it can radiate away, and sweat erupts onto the skin, cooling it by evaporation. When those mechanisms fail, we die. It sounds straightforward; it’s actually a complex, cascading collapse. As a heatstroke victim’s internal temperature rises, the heart and lungs work ever harder to keep dilated vessels full. A point comes when the heart cannot keep up. Blood pressure drops, inducing dizziness, stumbling, and the slurring of speech. Salt levels decline and muscles cramp. Confused, even delirious, many victims don’t realize they need immediate help. With blood rushing to overheated skin, organs receive less flow, triggering a range of reactions that break down cells. Some victims succumb with an internal temperature…

從北中南到宜花!不只半導體,氫能、地熱、零售大舉插旗

宜蘭、花蓮 維特克能源 日本太陽能發電商 8億元 投資太陽能發電廠 倍速羅得 比爾蓋茲投資的瑞典地熱公司 投資地熱彰化 彰化 玉山能源與北陸電力 新加坡風電開發商與加拿大能源開發商 1,500億元(2017年宣布) 沃旭能源 全球最大離岸風電開發商 773億元(自2019年以來) 哥本哈根基礎建設基金 全球最大能源基礎建設投資基金 221億元(自2019年以來) 投資風電、風場開發 台灣賓士 德國汽車大廠 7億元 投資原廠零件物流中心 雲林、嘉義 Google 美國軟體大廠 260億元 擴大雲林、台南資料中心規模 信越電子 日本化學大廠 72億元 擴建生產廠房 德亞瑪 日本化學廠德山投資成立 6億元 擴建半導體化學材料廠 福隆玻璃纖維 日本電子玻纖紗生產大廠 40億元 擴玻璃材料廠 高雄 英特格 美國半導體材料大廠 140億元 打造全球最大製造基地 台塑德山 日本化學廠德山投資成立 24億元 興建半導體用異丙醇廠 默克 德國製藥與化學大廠 170億元 建置半導體材料生產與研發中心 大和房屋 日本最大建商 60億元 興建飯店 東喜璐機能膜日本三井化學子公司 24億元 強化生產設備 屏東…

Three ways Apple could improve its core Services experience

Three ways Apple could improve its core Services experience

Services: they’re so hot right now. Apple beat its self-stated goal of doubling Services revenue in 2020 with time to spare, and the company has not only recently announced that it has launched a new service, Apple Fitness+, but also finally elected to offer a competitively priced bundle of its many services to consumers. With all of that said, there are some elements of Apple’s services that are still a bit lackluster, and more than a few of them are parts of the very systems on which the company and its users rely. In the same way that you might want to look to patching a foundation before worrying about painting the walls, there are a few places where Apple might want to shore up its fundamentals before launching into something new. PAY…

古希臘齒輪裡的天文密碼

古希臘齒輪裡的天文密碼

1900年,潛水夫史塔迪亞提斯(Elias Stadiatis)頭戴銅和黃銅打造的頭盔、身穿厚重的帆布潛水衣,從海中浮上水面。他嚇得一直發抖,口中含糊說著他看到「一堆裸體死人」。史塔迪亞提斯是地中海東部錫米島的希臘潛水夫,平常以採集天然海綿為生。他和同伴在克里特島和希臘半島之間的安提基瑟拉(Antikythera)島上躲避強烈風暴。風雨停息後,他們下水採集海綿,就這麼剛好看到滿載古希臘珍寶的沉船,是截至當時所發現最重要的古代沉船殘骸。那「一堆裸體死人」其實是散落在海底的大理石雕像和工藝製品。不久之後,他們的發現促成史上第一次大規模海底考古發掘行動。 從這艘沉船撈出的文物中,有一件物品外觀仿如一本大型字典,因為夾雜在其他更令人驚豔的發現之中,起初並不受注意。不過幾個月後,在希臘雅典的國家考古博物館,這件物品解體了,從裡面散落出大小如同硬幣的青銅製精密齒輪。依據當時的歷史常識,這類齒輪不應該出現在古希臘,甚至不應該出現在同時期世界上任何地方,而應該比這艘沉船晚好幾百年才出現。這項發現因此引發激烈爭論。 這件奇特的物品稱為安提基瑟拉儀(Antikythera mechanism),120…

A month in wine

A month in wine

Bordeaux gives go-ahead for new grapes Six ‘new’ grape varieties that could help Bordeaux châteaux fight climate change have been provisionally approved for use, as St-Emilion wineries join forces to build an anti-hail defence system (below). France’s national appellation body, INAO, approved six varieties proposed for use by producers of Bordeaux AP and Supérieur wines. It’s potentially a major move, although the reality of adapting to climate change is extremely complex. Touriga Nacional is among four red wine varieties on the list, and it needs little introduction to Port lovers and fans of Portuguese wine in general. The other three are Castets, Arinarnoa and Marselan, the last of which is a crossing between Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache Noir and has enjoyed success in China in recent years. Two white wine varieties, Alvarinho and Liliorila,…

KEF LS50 Meta

KEF LS50 Meta

£1000 KEF launched the original LS50 standmounters as an anniversary celebration back in 2012, and they proved a huge success – so much so that they have continued in production pretty much untouched since then. Eight years is a long run by any standards, but it was made possible by a combination of sound quality, build and aesthetics that remains highly appealing today. That hasn’t stopped KEF’s engineers from having a fresh look though, and the result is the LS50 Metas. The LS50 Metas don’t look any different from the LS50s, and in many ways they aren’t. The company considered revising that beautifully made enclosure but concluded that little could be improved. The only obvious changes are to the back panel, which has been tidied up. The cabinet shape and size still works well,…

THE LOST RIVER OF PARIS

THE LOST RIVER OF PARIS

A RIVER USED TO MEANDER through my Left Bank neighborhood in Paris. From the southern city limit that’s now Parc Kellermann in the 13th arrondissement, the Bièvre fed mills and tanneries before its confluence with the Seine in the 5th arrondissement. But by the early 20th century, the Bièvre had become so odoriferous and polluted that it had been buried underground, its water diverted into the sewers. Although the Seine evokes romance, the Bièvre is largely unknown to the millions of travelers who visit the French capital every year. But many Parisians have harbored a long-standing dream of resurrecting a river that, to them, has taken on mythic status. This dream is now close to becoming a reality. In recent years, sections of the river have been reopened in upstream suburbs,…

Why switching to the 14-inch MacBook Pro was a surprisingly huge upgrade

Why switching to the 14-inch MacBook Pro was a surprisingly huge upgrade

Before we start, I have a confession: It’s been about 10 years since I bought a MacBook. I’ve used plenty of them over the years through work and on loan from Apple, including the latest M1 MacBook Pro, but the last time I actually owned a MacBook was the 15-inch MacBook Pro with Retina display in 2012. So when I saw a recent deal on the entry-level 14-inch MacBook Pro at Costco, it was too good to pass up. Even though I had read the reviews, I didn’t expect all that much to be different between the M1 MacBook Pro and the M1 Pro MacBook Pro—a little faster, a little bigger, a little newer. But I was pleasantly surprised. The 14-inch MacBook Pro is a whole new machine that’s far more…

REVIEW: APPLE WATCH SERIES 7 STILL THE BEST WITH THE SMALLEST OF CHANGES

REVIEW: APPLE WATCH SERIES 7 STILL THE BEST WITH THE SMALLEST OF CHANGES

It’s not often that a major new Apple product could be fairly, and completely, reviewed in a single tweet. This may come as close as any review ever has: “It’s a Series 6 with a slightly bigger display and faster charging” is far less than 250 characters. But it feels like a stretch to find other things to say about the Series 7. This could be the least-significant yearly update to the Apple Watch ever, and while that in no way makes it bad (this is still the best smartwatch around), it’s hard not to be disappointed. A BIGGER DISPLAY The star of the Series 7 is the display. It’s about 20 percent larger than in the Series 6. Most of this increase in size comes from thinner bezels, but the case is…

PRODUCTS

Louis Vuitton × Studio Adjective Hong Kong-based STUDIO ADJECTIVE has designed Louis Vuitton’s latest mah-jong set, a custom-made iteration of the traditional game created for the French fashion house’s Vanity Mahjong collection. As an architectural design firm, ADJECTIVE infused the mah-jong set with architectural elements, settling on the concept of ‘table architecture’ based on the stackable quality and geometry of the tiles. Made of ivory composite stone, American walnut and brass, the tiles and tile bars feature Louis Vuitton’s iconic four-petal flower logo, subtly incorporated into the design of the game. louisvuitton.com / adj.com.hk Mario Tsai Titled Origin, Hangzhou-based designer Mario Tsai’s new collection is a reflection on the decay of human instincts induced by modern technology. The collection’s six pieces — stools, benches and a floor lamp — were crafted with leftover logs…

PRODUCTS

CONNECTED, INFECTED

ANIMAL HOSTS Domestic and wild Eight of the top 10 mammal species that host the most zoonotic viruses are domesticated. As a group, these animals—including cats, dogs, pigs, cattle, horses, and sheep—are responsible for half of the viruses that can spread to humans. Only 11 percent of the terrestrial mammal species in the wild that were included in the study are suspected of hosting zoonotic viruses, and most of those animals host only one. Domesticated species, primates, and bats host the most viruses. SOURCES: CHRISTINE K. JOHNSON, PETA L. HITCHENS, PRANAV S. PANDIT, JULIE RUSHMORE, TIERRA SMILEY EVANS, CRISTIN C.W. YOUNG, AND MEGAN M. DOYLE, “GLOBAL SHIFTS IN MAMMALIAN POPULATION TRENDS REVEAL KEY PREDICTORS OF VIRUS SPILLOVER RISK,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B; CDC; WHO ZOONOTIC VIRUSES What’s in a name? Rabies—one of the world’s deadliest…

CONNECTED, INFECTED
HDR: Shock and Awe

HDR: Shock and Awe

Q I tried to watch the movie Cruella on Disney+ and was shocked by the poor video quality presented by my Roku streaming device. I have noticed other dark-looking movies in the past, but this example was just terrible. I was able to make Cruella watchable by changing the color mode and lamp settings on my Epson HC 4010 projector, but still wonder exactly what happened. Have you noticed that some movies look notably darker than others? If so, does it have anything to do with high dynamic range (HDR)? GARY EICKMEIER/VIA EMAIL A What does it have to do with HDR? Everything, most likely, though Disney+ isn’t necessarily at fault in this case, and neither is your Roku device. Cruella on Disney+ is in Dolby Vision, a dynamic HDR format where…

Uncorked

Uncorked

Napa Valley and Bordeaux at tipping point on global warming? Fresh concerns about a climate ‘tipping point’ for Napa Valley and Bordeaux red wines have been raised by scientists, after analysing temperature and grape data. Writing in the Oeno One journal, researchers said climate data showed a significant increase in average growing season temperatures in both Napa and Bordeaux, particularly since the 1980s. So far the warmer conditions have generally contributed to better average wine quality, noted the authors, from the University of Bordeaux’s ISVV Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin and UC Davis. However, analysis on five vintages of California Cabernet Sauvignon found that higher sugar levels in grapes could lead to loss of colour. Higher temperatures can also increase grapes’ sugar content during ripening. The authors concluded:…

電腦科學理論之父──圖靈

物理學有一條定律:凡是不禁止的事,就必然發 生。因此,錯誤無可避免。任何事物都可能出錯:語 言、烹飪、通訊、影像處理,當然還有運算。減少並 糾正錯誤能讓社會持續運作。DVD刮花了依然能夠播 放;行動條碼(QR code)可能模糊或破損,但還是可 以讀取;太空探測船拍到的影像可以傳遞數億公里,看 起來依然清晰。糾錯(error correction)是資訊技術當中 最為基本的概念。錯誤或許無可避免,但可以糾正。 當時,量子電腦還在最早期的階段。雖然阿崗國 家實驗室的班尼奧夫(Paul Benioff)在1980年就提出 概念,物理學家花了將近20 年才打造出第一台量子電 腦。又過了10年,在2007年,他們發明了基本資料單 元,稱為超導transmon量子位元,是IBM、Google和其 他公司製造量子電腦的基礎。因為超導體方面的研究經 驗,我突然很受歡迎。我在IARPA協助執行了好幾項 量子計算研究計畫,之後加入了IBM。 在IBM,我致力於改善使用多個相連的量子位元執 行的運算,並探索糾錯法。透過纏結(entanglement) 這種量子現象來連結量子位元,可以儲存大量資訊,遠…

電腦科學理論之父──圖靈
I SWITCHED FROM GOOGLE TO DUCKDUCKGO’S PRIVATE SEARCH: 5 BIG TAKEAWAYS

I SWITCHED FROM GOOGLE TO DUCKDUCKGO’S PRIVATE SEARCH: 5 BIG TAKEAWAYS

Google is far and away the most popular search engine—but sometimes it can feel more like Big Brother and less like a friendly assistant. Indeed, for those concerned about privacy, Google can overstep some boundaries by collecting your personal data and serving you ads based on what it collects. Google does allow you to disable some personalization and tracking settings, but it’s ultimately up to the user to change them. Enter DuckDuckGo, a privacy-focused search engine with its own desktop extension and mobile browser app. DuckDuckGo touts itself as the anti-Google, promising not to track or collect your data from the start. It offers a clean interface and familiar layout, and provides many of the features you’ve come to expect from a search engine—but without those invasive data trackers. (If privacy…

GRAMOPHONE DREAMS

GRAMOPHONE DREAMS

THIS ISSUE: Herb listens to the new Stax flagship, the replacement for the legendary EAR 834P phono stage, and a new version of the Sky 20 step-up transformer from Bob’s Devices. A month ago, I ran into my Russian neighbor in the hall. As usual, he asked me what I was reviewing. (Vladimir likes to come over and listen, then find fault with everything I play.) When I told Vlad I had Stax’s new top-of-the-line earspeaker, the SR-X9000, he lit up and exclaimed, “I need to hear it,” adding that he has been a lifelong Stax fanatic and owns at least five different models, “dating way back.” He told me he’d recently sold his SR-009 to buy the newer SR-009S, but he still has his ragged, 25-year-old Stax Omega “prototype,” which…

The Case for Covid Zero

Over the past two years, China’s zero-tolerance policy of lockdowns, mass testing, and strict border quarantines for Covid-19 has prevented a huge number of deaths at home and ensured that everything from iPhones and Teslas to fertilizer and car parts continued to flow to the rest of the world. If consumers and businesses want to continue to buy goods made in China without having to endure shortages and further price hikes, they should want China to stick with its “Covid-zero” policy, as Chinese President Xi Jinping does. Yet that’s not the message you hear outside of China. Criticism of Beijing’s determination to squash every outbreak is increasing—criticism that emphasizes the damage to China’s economy, the risks posed to global supply chains, and even the threat to Olympic athletes’ human rights. Gita Gopinath, a…

The Case for Covid Zero
Apple M1 Macs: What you need to know about buying a new Mac with Apple silicon

Apple M1 Macs: What you need to know about buying a new Mac with Apple silicon

Macs are undergoing a big change. Apple is switching its internal architecture from one that uses Intel CPUs, third-party graphics processors, and other parts, to the company’s own “system on a chip.” The first Apple silicon SoC for Macs is called the M1. It’s a big step for Apple and the Mac. But what does it mean for you? In this article, we cover what Apple’s system on a chip means to the user, how it affects what software you can use, and answer other frequently asked questions. WHAT IS THE ‘APPLE SILICON’ M1 SYSTEM ON A CHIP? “Apple silicon” refers to the chips Apple makes. In the Mac, they replace the Intel processors they have used for the past 14 years, and will eventually also replace the AMD graphics processors in higher-end…

MEASUREMENTS

MEASUREMENTS

I measured the Pass Laboratories XP-32’s performance with my Audio Precision SYS2722 system (see the January 2008 “As We See It”1), repeating some tests with the magazine’s more-recent APx555 system. The maximum gain was a little higher than the specified 9.6dB for the balanced and unbalanced inputs to the balanced outputs, at 10.2dB. The gain from the unbalanced input to the unbalanced output was 6.5dB. The preamplifier preserved absolute polarity (ie, was noninverting) with both balanced and unbalanced inputs and outputs. (Its XLR jacks are wired with pin 2 hot, the AES convention.) The XP-32’s unbalanced input impedance was close to specification at 20Hz and 1kHz, at 20.3k ohms, but slightly lower at 20kHz, at 17.6k ohms. The balanced input impedance was to specification and twice the unbalanced, as expected. The…

The Problem with Innovation Contests

IN 1714, THE British government offered a cash prize to anyone who could devise a practical method of determining longitude at sea. In more recent times, open innovation contests have tackled challenges ranging from the silly (Frito-Lay’s Crash the Super Bowl campaigns invited consumers to shoot a funny Doritos commercial) to the substantial (the NFL and Duke University have offered up to $2 million for football helmet designs that better prevent brain injuries). Such contests are designed to get the competitive juices flowing, and for that reason participants can often view others’ submissions while working on their own. But new research shows that if not managed carefully, that same competitive element can kill creativity. Across two real-world studies and three lab experiments, participants who were shown lots of competing ideas or…

The Problem with Innovation Contests