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How It WorksHow It Works

How It Works No. 115

Welcome to How It Works, the magazine that explains everything you never knew you wanted to know about the world we live in. Loaded with fully illustrated guides and expert knowledge, and with sections dedicated to science, technology, transportation, space, history and the environment, no subject is too big or small for How It Works to explain.

United Kingdom
Future Publishing Ltd
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13 Issues


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welcome the magazine that feeds minds!

“Travellers along the road carried with them ideas and philosophies…” The Silk Road Did you know you can climb to the summit of Everest, tour the International Space Station and even explore the wreckage of the Titanic all from the comfort of your own home? And that’s just the tip of the virtual reality iceberg. Beyond the fun and games, virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies can improve many other aspects of our lives. Surgeons can practise procedures on virtual simulations of their patients; engineers can test products without building expensive prototypes; and architects can walk you through your new home before it’s been built.Also inside, discover why viruses defy our definitions of life, learn how drones can re-plant entire forests, and find out how a network…

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meet the team…

Charlie G Production Editor This issue’s virus feature inspired me to read up on the subject. Did you know there are more viruses on Earth than stars in the known universe? Baljeet Research Editor Experts believe the Amazon Rainforest could disappear in 40 years. Could reforestation save it? Find out on page 44. Charlie E Staff Writer Summer is here, so why not sit back in the sunshine with your favourite frozen treat and read about the science of ice cream on page 43? Scott Staff Writer What makes the perfect spacesuit? Discover the life-sustaining designs that could one day strut their stuff on Mars on page 56. (© Sphero; Getty) Duncan Senior Art Editor The…

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heroic rescue divers save football team trapped in cave

Footage from the hospital was released during a press conference. The boys are said to be in good physical health despite their ordeal Rescue teams worked tirelessly to keep the boys and their coach alive and eventually bring them to safety On 23 June, a young Thai football team and their coach went to explore the Tham Luang cave in northern Thailand, but a sudden downpour of heavy rain caused flooding and blocked their way back out. They survived there for nine days with barely any food or light before being found by divers from a search team. With the threat of more monsoon rains to come, the military and civilian rescue team faced a race against time to find a way to bring the boys and their…

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a high-risk operation

After the Wild Boars were first found, it was hoped that the floodwater could be pumped out of the cave so they could walk or be carried out much more easily. However, water continued to pour in from the streams and sinkholes in the hills above, and the forecast of monsoon rains meant the pumping systems simply could not compete. Drilling down into the cave was also considered, but this could have risked destabilising the rock above the boys or trigger even more flooding. Another option was to keep the Wild Boars in the cave – stocked with plenty of food, oxygen and supplies – until the monsoon season ended and the floods receded, which would mean waiting several months. As oxygen levels in the cavern…

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the benefits of going barefoot

Spending time playing barefoot is beneficial for children’s physical development Researchers have found that children and teenagers tend to be better at jumping and balancing if they spend more time barefoot, compared to those who habitually wear shoes. There is growing evidence to suggest that footwear affects our natural movements, but this is the first study to investigate whether these biomechanical changes have an impact on motor skill development. 810 South African and German children between six and 18 years old took part in the study. The South African children, who were from rural Western Cape, often go barefoot, whereas the German children were from urban areas and wear shoes most of the time. Teams in both regions tested the children’s balance, sprinting abilities and how…

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vehicle vibrations make you sleepy

A driving simulator set to vibrate at low frequencies, mimicking a car’s natural vibrations, was found to make people drowsy after just 15 minutes. The researchers from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, hope car manufacturers use these findings to design vibration-suppressing seats. ■…