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How It Works Book of the Elements How It Works Book of the Elements

How It Works Book of the Elements

How It Works Book of the Elements 5th Edition

The periodic table is the ultimate guide to the elements, organised by atomic number and electron configuration. In How It Works Book Of The Elements, take a more in-depth look at every known element and discover the history behind key discoveries. You will learn everything you need to know about the universe’s building blocks right here. Featuring: An introduction to the elements - Electrons, atoms, compounds and much more explained. Elements – a history - Key discoveries and people from the past 400 years. All elements covered - All 118 discovered elements explored. Element information - Atomic numbers, oxidation states, electron configurations and more for each element.

Country:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Publisher:
Future Publishing Ltd
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IN THIS ISSUE

access_time1 min.
welcome to how it works book of the elements

Since ancient times, scientists and philosophers have attempted to discover, classify and synthesise the Earth’s elements. Now, thanks to the hard work of dedicated individuals, we have the periodic table: the ultimate guide to the elements, organised by atomic number and electron configuration. In the How It Works Book Of The Elements, we introduce you to the basics of elements and compounds, as well as taking a more in-depth look at the history of key discoveries. Every known element on the planet is covered in detail, from lanthanoids to actinoids, alkali metals to transition metals, and halogens to noble gases. You’ll find everything you need to know about the universe’s building blocks right here.…

access_time22 min.
an introduction to the elements

Elements, compounds and mixtures Most familiar substances are mixtures or compounds. Wood, steel, air, salt, concrete, skin, water, plastics, glass, wax – these are all mixtures or compounds, made up of more than one element. We do encounter elements in our everyday life, albeit not completely pure. Gold and silver are good examples; and even in the purest sample of gold ever produced, one in every million atoms was an atom of an element other than gold. Copper (pipes), iron (railings), aluminium (foil) and carbon (as diamond) are further examples of elements we encounter in their fairly pure state. Some other elements are familiar simply because they are so important or commonplace. Oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, calcium, sodium, lead – these are all examples of such elements This book will explore the properties of…

access_time8 min.
elements – a history

Ancient peoples were familiar with several of the substances that we now know as chemical elements. Some, such as gold, silver and sulfur, exist naturally in a relatively pure form; others, such as iron, copper and mercury, are easily extracted from minerals. But it was not until the end of the eighteenth century that scientists established the notion of what a chemical element actually is, and how that differs from a chemical compound. And it was the 1920s before all the naturally occurring elements had been discovered and isolated. Trying to make sense of the incredible diversity of matter must have been bewildering for ancient philosophers. In many early civilizations, philosophers deduced that all matter is made up of earth, air, fire and water, in varying mixtures. These were the “elements”…

access_time8 min.
hydrogen

Hydrogen is the most abundant of all the elements, constituting more than 75 per cent of all ordinary matter in the Universe by mass (most of the mass of the Universe is “dark matter”, whose nature remains a mystery), and accounting for around 90 per cent of all atoms. Most of the hydrogen on Earth is in water molecules, but this element is also a crucial component in the molecules involved in the processes of life. Hydrogen may even replace fossil fuels as the main energy source in the future. Hydrogen is officially in Group 1 of the periodic table, but it is so different from the other Group 1 elements that it is generally considered in a category of its own. The single electron of a hydrogen atom half-fills an…

access_time13 min.
the alkali metals

In contrast with the uniqueness of hydrogen and the varied properties you find in some other groups of the periodic table, the alkali metals exhibit particularly strong family resemblances. All are solid, but so_, at room temperature; all are shiny metals that have to be kept under oil or in inert atmospheres because they are very reactive. With the exception of the radioactive and extremely rare francium, these shiny metals react rapidly with oxygen in the air, so that their surfaces quickly become dull. Their shininess is revealed again if you cut them with a knife. Caesium is the most chemically reactive of all the elements in this group, and spontaneously catches fire in air. The atoms of these elements all have just one electron in their outer shell (s1) – and…

access_time14 min.
the alkaline earth metals

The elements of Group 2 are less reactive versions of the Group 1 elements. Like their more excitable cousins, these elements react with water and acids, producing hydrogen gas. But while Group 1 elements react explosively with cold water and even spontaneously with air, these Group 2 elements only react with water if it is very hot. The lesser reactivity is due to the electron configuration: the atoms of these elements have two electrons in their outer shell, compared with just one for the Group 1 elements. Compared with its Group 1 equivalent, immediately to its left in the periodic table, each Group 2 element has an extra proton and an extra electron. The result is that the electrons are held more tightly and it takes more energy to remove them.…

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