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How It Works

How It Works No. 136

Welcome to How It Works, the magazine that explains everything you never knew you wanted to know about the world we live in. Loaded with fully illustrated guides and expert knowledge, and with sections dedicated to science, technology, transportation, space, history and the environment, no subject is too big or small for How It Works to explain.

País:
United Kingdom
Idioma:
English
Editor:
Future Publishing Ltd
Periodicidad:
Monthly
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13 Números

en este número

1 min.
welcome

“I was 10 or 11 when I stumbled across a chatroom whose members taught me how to hack”Cyber warfare, page 22 If anything, the internet has become an even wilder digital frontier for all the exploring we’ve done in the last 30 years. Hackers, phishing scammers, botnet hijackers and computer viruses either hide behind screens and in devices thousands of miles from you, or in nooks of code on innocuous websites. You can protect your computer by arming yourself with the knowledge of how these nasties – both digital and human varieties – work in this issue of How It Works. We’ve also spoken to a computer hacker who’s turned his previous illegal online activities into a force for good. Enjoy the issue! For exclusive HIW news and offers, sign up to…

1 min.
meet the team…

Nikole Production Editor NASA uses Hubble and an array of other telescopes to take amazing images of space. Turn to page 70 to see some of the best. Scott Staff Writer Is vaping any better than smoking? Discover the science of nicotine addiction and the mystery vaping illness on page 32. Baljeet Research Editor We’re under constant surveillance from satellites in the sky. Learn the secrets of these spying eyes on page 52. Duncan Senior Art Editor Nuclear weapons are the most deadly on Earth. On page 60 we explore their history and the development of their destructive power. Ailsa Staff Writer Every day we use hundreds of litres of water, but where does it go after leaving our homes? Follow its journey on page 50.…

1 min.
meet this issue’s experts…

Jo Elphick Jo is an academic lawyer and lecturer specialising in criminal law and forensics. She is also the author of a number of true crime books. Mark Smith A technology and multimedia specialist, Mark has written tech articles for leading online and print publications for many years. Andy Extance Andy is a freelance science writer based in Exeter, UK. He previously worked in early stage drug discovery research, followed by a brief stint in silicone adhesive and rubber manufacturing. Dr Andrew May Andrew has a PhD in astrophysics and 30 years in public and private industry. He enjoys space writing and is the author of several books. Amy Grisdale Volunteer animal worker Amy has an enormous breadth of experience on animal conservation projects. She specialises in writing about environmental topics. Steve Wright Steve has worked as an editor on various…

1 min.
fridge invader

These dewy hair-like strands might look like they belong among grass blades on a crisp morning. However, they live a little closer to home. Found in the forgotten punnet of raspberries at the back of the fridge, Rhizopus stolonifer, also known as ‘black bread mould’, forms a woolly coat around expired fruit and vegetables. The hair-like structures, called sporangiophore, reach out holding tiny black and white spores so the fungus can spread. This furry photo was captured by Juliet Evans for The Royal Photographic Society’s 2019 science photography competition. You can find out more about this year’s entries at rps.org.…

1 min.
crawling traffic, hidden dragon

Lit up like arteries in Shanghai’s circulatory system, roads meet in a symmetrical junction called the Chengdu Bei Lu and Yan’an Lu intersection. Illuminated by indigo LED lights, this intertwined highway supports over 2.5 million cars currently driving on the streets of Shanghai. During construction between 1995 and 1999, this example of architectural excellence found itself waking a sleeping dragon – or so legend has it. Upon trying to insert one of many supporting pillars, digging crews hit an unexplainable hurdle, and despite their incessant pounding the ground beneath wouldn’t budge. As the story goes, a priest summoned to the construction site informed engineers of the mystical beast’s displeasure, suggesting a way to restore its slumber that would allow the pillar to be erected. To honour the legend, the central…

1 min.
human chest cavity

Using X-rays to take a peek inside the human body can reveal some spectacular images, and this coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan is no exception. CT scanners use a rotating ring equipped with an X-ray source to snap image ‘slices’ through the body. This is only possible because of the way X-rays interact with the tissue in our bodies. Bone, for example, absorbs more of the radiation than soft tissue, revealing them on an X-ray image. To see the soft tissue such as organs, however, a contrast agent – typically iodine-based – is injected into the bloodstream to absorb the X-ray radiation and reveal the networks of blood vessels and vital organs within our bodies.…