How It Works

How It Works No. 140

Welcome to How It Works, the magazine that explains everything you never knew you wanted to know about the world we live in. Loaded with fully illustrated guides and expert knowledge, and with sections dedicated to science, technology, transportation, space, history and the environment, no subject is too big or small for How It Works to explain.

United Kingdom
Future Publishing Ltd
Leer Más
USD 36.99
13 Números

en este número

1 min.

Working in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) is similar to being on the battlefield, where the situation can turn on a pinhead and split-second decisions can make the difference between life or death. Can you imagine what it was like when Crimean War nurse Florence Nightingale was pioneering intensive care treatment for wounded soldiers over 150 years ago? Nowadays ICU workers have sophisticated technology and decades of advanced medical knowledge at their disposal, but taking care of critically ill patients is no less demanding, as our interview with the lead consultant of an ICU reveals in our special feature on page 20. howitworksdaily.com/newsletter For exclusive HIW news and offers, sign up to our mailing list FOLLOW US… How It Works magazine @HowItWorksmag…

1 min.
meet the team…

Nikole Production Editor The smallest planet in our Solar System orbits close to the Sun, so is hard to observe. Catch a rare glimpse of Mercury on page 60. Scott Staff Writer How has nature responded to the massive break from human activity during global lockdowns? Find out on page 36. Baljeet Research Editor The pyramids hold many secrets, but the biggest remains around how they were built. Explore these Egyptian enigmas on page 44. Duncan Senior Art Editor Lap up the luxury experienced by the rich and famous out at sea in some of the most extravagant superyachts money can buy, on page 64. Ailsa Staff Writer We often rely on antibiotics to rid our bodies of infection, but some bacteria are rebelling. Meet these superbugs on page 50.…

1 min.
global eye

FACES IN LEAVES At first glance this image might look like an abstract painting of a queue of people, but in actuality this is the light micrograph of a section of a marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) leaf. Found in coastal areas on sand dunes, the survival of this species of grass is dependent on its ability to optimally intake water and store it. Marram grass traps moist air into its leaves, collecting water through the hair-like structures and moving it throughout the plant through the xylem vessels (green). Using a microscope technique called incident fluorescence with ultraviolet excitation, this image distinguishes between the xylem vessels and sugar-carrying phloem (blue) to reveal the grass’s delicate, yet eerie internal structure. LAKES OF METAL WASTE Flying over the Australian outback, you might glance down and see…

2 min.
salvagers can now open the titanic to take its ‘voice’

A federal judge has given a salvage company permission to cut open the hull of the RMS Titanic in order to retrieve the ship’s famed Marconi wireless telegraph machine. The telegraph machine, sometimes called ‘the voice of the Titanic’, is notorious for sending out the ship’s final distress messages on 14 and 15 April 1912 after the ship hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic and started to sink, ultimately killing some 1,500 people. The equipment sits within three adjoining rooms known as the Marconi suite, located on the ship’s topmost deck, and has long intrigued salvagers at RMS Titanic, Inc., a for-profit company that won the rights to salvage the Titanic and exhibit its artefacts in 1994. Retrieving the telegraph might require cutting open the ship’s hull with a remotely…

2 min.
exotic fifth state of matter created on the space station

Scientists have generated an exotic form of matter in the unique microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and are using it to explore the quantum world. There are four states of matter common in everyday life: gases, liquids, solids and plasmas. However, there is also a fifth state of matter, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), which scientists first created in the lab 25 years ago. When a group of atoms is cooled to near absolute zero the atoms begin to clump together, behaving as if they were one big ‘super-atom’. “Atoms begin to clump together, behaving as if they were one big ‘super-atom’” Bose-Einstein condensates straddle the boundary between the everyday world, governed by classical physics, and the microscopic world, which follows the rules of quantum mechanics. In the world of quantum mechanics…

2 min.
mars once had rings and a bigger moon

Mars may have once had a giant ring that eventually got smooshed to form one of its oddly shaped moons, new research suggests. Mars has two small, lumpy moons: Phobos and Deimos. Phobos orbits closer to the Red Planet and follows the line of Mars’ equator. Deimos orbits farther away along an orbit that’s tilted by two degrees off the plane of the Martian equator. The wonky orbit adds evidence to the idea that Phobos may once have been a giant ring that eventually coalesced into its present shape. In 2017 a team of researchers argued in Nature Geoscience that the Martian moons go through cycles, ripped apart into thin rings by the planet’s gravity, then eventually forming moons again. In each cycle the moon formed from the ring is smaller…