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Cobblestone American History and Current Events for Kids and Children

Cobblestone American History and Current Events for Kids and Children

November/December 2020

COBBLESTONE is the award-winning and respected leader in the study of American history for young people. COBBLESTONE tells America’s story through a unique mix of captivating articles, lively graphics, historical photographs, primary sources, and maps. Each themed-issue examines historical events in detail making them exciting and relevant to today. A must-have for every history classroom and media center. Grades 5-9.

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Land:
United States
Taal:
English
Uitgever:
Cricket Media, Inc.
Verschijningsfrequentie:
Monthly
EDITIE KOPEN
€ 3,63(Incl. btw)
ABONNEREN
€ 22,67(Incl. btw)
9 Edities

in deze editie

2 min.
getting started

The death and destruction that took place during the American Civil War (1861–1865) was staggering. An estimated 720,000 people died. Cities, farms, and homes were ruined. The devastation made people wonder: After four years of war, how could Northerners and Southerners ever live and work together again? And what about the 4 million former enslaved people? How would their freedom change their lives personally and life in the South generally? Between 1865 and 1877, the nation struggled to find answers to those questions. Those years became known as the Reconstruction era. The war had ended in a victory for the Union and Northerners, but President Abraham Lincoln did not want to punish the South. He hoped to find a way to heal the nation and lead it forward. Lincoln’s vision for the…

4 min.
lincoln’s plan for peace

President Abraham Lincoln spent his first term in office trying to end the Civil War (1861–1865). He ran for reelection in 1864 hoping to spend a second term healing the nation. He was deeply concerned about finding a way forward that everyone—Black, white, Northerner, and Southerner—thought was fair. He also wanted to make the country strong and to attract Southern voters to his Republican party so that it would remain powerful after the war. During the war, Lincoln came to believe that slavery was the main obstacle keeping Northerners and Southerners apart. The government had been unable to address slavery in the prior decades, but the war had changed that. In 1862, enslaved people began to escape their masters and to flee north. When they sought protection behind Union army lines,…

4 min.
a helping hand

The spring season is hard in any agricultural society. Farmers rely on plants and animals, but plants are too small to harvest and animals are too young to eat in the spring. In the final months of the Civil War in the spring of 1865, things were not just hard in the South, they were desperate. Frightened families had abandoned their homes as Union troops invaded. No one had planted crops. Refugees, both white and Black, were just trying to survive. They crowded the roads searching for any place that might offer food and shelter. They were at the mercy of thieves and former soldiers who ranged the roads, too. Union soldiers and newspapers reported on how bad things were in the South. Fields were ruined, factories were destroyed, and homes…

2 min.
black codes

Many white Southerners refused to accept that the Confederacy’s defeat in the Civil War (1861–1865) had changed things. With President Andrew Johnson’s support, Southern states moved quickly to create new state governments in the spring of 1865 that kept white men in power. They also passed state laws called Black Codes. Black Codes denied African Americans the right to vote, to serve on juries or in state militias, to own or carry weapons, and to travel freely. They also limited social interaction between the races. For example, Black people were restricted from attending white churches or mixing with white people on railroad cars. Black people and white people were forbidden from marrying one another. Black Codes kept African Americans working on plantations, too. Fieldworkers needed a pass to leave the plantation on…

5 min.
the radical republicans take charge

When Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency in April 1865, he took charge of the nation’s Reconstruction plan. Under Johnson’s plan, white Southerners were allowed to elect ex-Confederate officers to Congress and to new state legislatures. In addition, those new state governments wrote Black Codes that restricted the rights of African Americans. Northern legislators condemned those actions. They refused to readmit Southern states under Johnson’s plan. But Congress was left with a problem: How could it protect Black Americans without punishing white ex-Confederates to such a degree that they would hate the United States forever? In April 1866, overriding Johnson’s veto, Congress passed the nation’s first Civil Rights Act. It protected the rights of African Americans as citizens of the United States. It also gave African Americans equal access to the law.…

1 min.
leading the way

African Americans were not quiet bystanders to their fates in the South. In November 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina, 2,000 African Americans drew up a petition. They wrote, “We simply ask that we shall be recognized as men, that there be no obstructions placed in our way; that the same laws that govern white men shall govern black men; that we have the right of trial by a jury of our peers; that schools be established for education of colored children as well as white; and that the advantage of both colors shall, in this respect, be equal.” In the spring of 1867, Black voters participated in political rallies. They registered and voted in huge numbers. Freedpeople also engaged in civil disobedience against discrimination. Three freedpeople sat in a “whites only”…