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Cultura & Literatura
Crusades

Crusades

Crusades

In the 11th century the Christian Byzantine Greeks of the Byzantine Empire were under pressure from the forces of the Seljuk Turks. Pope Urban II, leader of the Roman Catholic Church, called for a great expedition to help relieve that pressure and liberate the Holy Land from the Muslims. The subsequent crusades over the next 200 years changed the face of the Holy Land forever, and ruined any goodwill in the relationships between Christians and Muslims, and between Roman Catholic Christians and Greek Orthodox Christians. In the All About History Book of the Crusades you will discover the historical and religious background to the crusades, the dramatic battles and political intrigue and what everyday life was like in Outremer. Uncover the true stories of crusading heroes and their rivalries, such as King Richard the Lionheart and Sultan Saladin. This is the perfect handbook for anyone on a quest for knowledge about this tumultuous period of history.

País:
United Kingdom
Língua:
English
Editora:
Future Publishing Ltd
Periodicidade:
One-off
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1 minutos
welcome to crusades

In the 11th century the Christian Byzantine Greeks of the Byzantine Empire were under pressure from the forces of the Seljuk Turks. Pope Urban II, leader of the Roman Catholic Church, called for a great expedition to help relieve that pressure and liberate the Holy Land from the Muslims. The subsequent crusades over the next 200 years changed the face of the Holy Land forever, and ruined any goodwill in the relationships between Christians and Muslims, and between Roman Catholic Christians and Greek Orthodox Christians. Discover the historical and religious background to the crusades, the dramatic battles and political intrigue and what everyday life was like in Outremer. Uncover the true stories of crusading heroes and their rivalries, such as King Richard the Lionheart and Sultan Saladin. This is the perfect…

10 minutos
the crusades

In 1394 an Italian traveller named Martoni was visiting Cyprus when he was surprised to see that the well-to-do women of the island were wearing black clothes from head to toe, with only their eyes showing through a slit in their headwear. When he inquired about the origin of this dress code he was informed by the citizens that the women of the island were symbolically mourning the capture by the Muslims of the Christian city of Acre on the Palestinian coast. What was extraordinary was that Acre had been lost more than a century ago, in 1291. But its fall to a Mamluk army from Egypt had a tremendous significance, because it marked the end of a 200-year long Christian presence in Syria and Palestine (which historians usually label…

1 minutos
the world of the crusades

This late-19th century map shows southeastern Europe and the Middle East, with their political boundaries, at the time of the crusades’ period. The Byzantine Empire is termed the “Eastern Roman Empire” and shaded in maroon. The inset plan of Jerusalem, bottom left, marks the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and, to the right of it, the Dome of the Rock. The nearby al-Aqsa mosque, which the Knights Templar made into their headquarters, is indicated by the letter “h”. The city’s gates are marked by other letters of the alphabet. The inset map, top right, shows the kingdom of Jerusalem, outlined in yellow, with the main Frankish baronies (prefaced by a “B”). Other important landmarks on the map include the Byzantine capital of Constantinople (“Constantinopolis”), modern Istanbul, situated between the Sea of…

12 minutos
the holy land

The start of the crusading movement and the course it took in the east was to some extent influenced by historical events that occurred hundreds of years before Pope Urban II preached the First Crusade in 1095. Many questions are raised by the crusades: for example, how did the Holy Land gain a mystique in the Christian imagination and how were the crusades connected with pilgrimage (crusaders saw themselves as pilgrims, albeit armed ones intent on conquest, and would perform religious rituals associated with pilgrimages)? Why were western crusaders chronically suspicious of, and hostile to, their fellow Christians in Byzantium (and vice versa)? How did religious and political differences between Muslims play into the hands of the crusaders? To answer these questions it is necessary to go back to the early…

2 minutos
holy relics

One of the principal motives for making a pilgrimage in medieval times was to see, and if possible touch, one or more holy relics. These were usually the remains of a saint whose intercessions with God on behalf of the supplicant might succeed in effecting a cure or bringing good luck. The crusaders, like any other pilgrims, were keen to acquire relics. When King Andrew of Hungary, for instance, returned home from Outremer in January 1218, he was laden with relics, including the head of St Stephen, the first Christian martyr, and one of the jugs that held the water which Jesus turned to wine during the wedding feast at Cana. The crusaders’ sack and looting of Constantinople in 1204 resulted in a flood of relics reaching the west –…

2 minutos
sunnis, shiites and muslim dynasties

The Muslim world that the crusaders entered was not homogeneous either in ethnicity or religion. For example, although the first Muslim armies were at first composed mainly of Arabs, by about 700 onward Persians, Turks, North African Berbers and others who had been converted to Islam were increasingly used. And in matters of religion there was a fundamental divide between two major groups: Sunnis and Shiites. The tension between the two sides was deeply rooted and, in crusader times, contributed to the complex and habitually fractious nature of Muslim politics in the Near East. The Sunnis, the “followers of the tradition”, who comprised the majority of Muslims, regarded themselves as mainstream orthodox believers, as they still do. The Shiites hold that the religious heads, or imams, of the Muslim community can…