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 / Технологии и Игры
Linux Format Annual

Linux Format Annual

Linux Format Annual

A celebration of all that's great about Linux and open source software from the No.1 Linux magazine. Enjoy a fistful of chunky longform features on everything from smart homes to sysadmin essentials and dive into a host of expert projects and tutorials.

Страна:
United Kingdom
Язык:
English
Издатель:
Future Publishing Ltd
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1 мин.
linux format annual 2018

Welcome to the land of the Penguin. We, at Linux Format, hope you’ll like the world of Linux and Free and Open Source as much as we do and to that end, we’ve drawn together all the best features, tutorials, projects and interviews into a special edition annual. Inside these pages, you’ll be able to satiate your appetite with a host of chunky articles. We cover everything from what you need to know to say adios to Windows forever and replacing it with a free Linux operating system (or what we call a Linux distribution) to taking back control of your data from the likes of Google and Facebook, with open source alternatives. We’ll also dive into turning your house into a smart home and the art of hacking, learning…

2 мин.
escape windows

However familiar you are in Windows, you can’t transfer everything you know and apply it equally to your new OS, and that’s particularly true when it comes to Linux, even a modern user-friendly one. Some things can translate, of course, but there are still fundamental differences in the way Linux operates and works that you need to understand. We’re going to base this guide on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (www.ubuntu.com/download) which is the base for a host of Linux OSes and as you’ll discover part of the fun is the variety of choice in the Linux world. We’ll begin by examining the Linux filesystem (everything is a file, even your folders and hardware devices) and look at how it handles users and permissions. There’s a brief look at drivers (with Linux you rarely need…

4 мин.
navigate the linux filesystem

The Linux filesystem (ext2, ext3 and ext4) is different to Windows. The key change is how it references drives and partitions: not as distinct drive letters, but as files within the main filesystem itself. Open the Dash and type ‘disks’ to open the Disks utility to help you visualise how things work. Select a drive in the lefthand menu and look in the Disks menu bar. You’ll see your drive is referenced something like /dev/sda. This refers to the dev (devices) folder, inside which each physical disk is assigned a unique file that begins sd (for storage device) followed by a unique letter from a through to z. This follows a logical pattern: /dev/sda is assigned to the drive Ubuntu is installed on, with drives then allocated sdb, sdc and so in…

4 мин.
file permissions explained

Any filesystem worth its salt will apply restrictions to files in the form of permissions, limiting access based on users and groups. Windows does this to some degree with its NTFS filesystem, but it’s no substitute for Linux’s approach. Everything in Linux is represented as a file, including folders and hardware devices. The ext filesystem then applies special permissions to these files to determine how they can be accessed, and by whom. These permissions boil down to three basic levels of access: r (read), w (write) and x (execute). You can view a file’s permissions when in the Terminal with the ls -l command, where you’ll see entries such as rwx (full access) or r-- (read-only) next to each file. These rwx permissions apply to folders as well as files, and things…

3 мин.
installing software

Many Linux programs are stored in what are called repositories (repos). These are online channels that bundle together software of similar types, built for specific versions of that distro, Ubuntu for example (so Ubuntu 16.04’s repos aren’t the same as those for Ubuntu 14.04, or indeed 16.10). To focus on Ubuntu there are four main channels for each separate version: Main, Restricted, Universe and Multiverse. The Main repo contains open-source software that can be redistributed and is supported by Ubuntu with regular updates. Universe contains free and open-source software where the community provides updates. Restricted houses proprietary (closed source) tools and drivers required to support Ubuntu on everyday hardware, while Multiverse contains software that’s not free nor supported. These repos can then be accessed by package managers like Software Centre to provide…

7 мин.
top 10 system tips

From using the Terminal to explore the filesystem, to finding out more about the status of your hardware, becoming familiar with these commands is a must. 1 Get help There are three ways to get help in the Terminal: Know the name of the tool? Use the --help flag: The whatis tool is another useful help-related command, providing you with a brief description of a fully formed command: This will describe the apt-get tool, the install argument and what package vlc is. Note, however, that whatis ignores any flags. Finally, the Terminal also provides access to a full-blown online manual via the man utility. Start with man intro for a long and detailed introduction of the Terminal itself, and man man for advice on navigating the manual. Finally, pair it with a specific tool –…