Культура и Литература
William the Conqueror and the Normans

William the Conqueror and the Normans

William the Conqueror and the Normans

Discover the complete history of the Normans, from the founding of their dynasty to their epic conquests and the effect they've had on the world to this day! Learn about their Viking roots and how they came to control northern France, discover their rich multicultural society and the true extent of their influence, and explore the complex royal politics that caused the crisis of 1066 and the Norman Conquest of England, complete with battle maps explaining the tactics of the key clashes in the conflict. Plus, learn about the powerful Norman queens who shaped the medieval world and the legacy their Norman descendants left almost a thousand years later.

United Kingdom
Future Publishing Ltd
Читать больше

в этом номере

9 мин.
kingdom of the northmen

Visit Normandy today and you will find a settled agricultural land dominated by the bocage that caused Allied troops so much difficulty in the weeks after D-Day. But this quiet atmosphere belies the area’s turbulent past. Normandy was fought over for centuries. The area enters recorded history in 53 BCE, when Julius Caesar conquered its Celtic and Belgic inhabitants as part of his campaigns to bring Gaul into the Roman Empire. After vigorous resistance, the local people settled comfortably into the Empire until the crises of the 3rd century CE brought the first devastating raids by Saxon pirates. After the temporary stabilisation brought about by the Emperor Diocletian, the region again fell prey to invading Germanic tribes from the beginning of the 5th century. But by the end of the…

3 мин.

57-56 BCE Roaming Romans Julius Caesar, campaigning to clear his debts and gain glory, attacked into north and north-west Gaul over two campaigning seasons, bringing the provinces under the control of what was still the Roman Republic. Late 3rd century Barbarians at the coast Raids by ship-borne Saxon and other Germanic tribes caused the building of the Saxon Shore system of forts in an ultimately futile effort to turn back the barbarian tide. 851 Vikings on the river Having been summer raiders, Viking war bands took to setting up camp over winter in the lower reaches of the Seine estuary, ready for a new season of plunder and slave taking, rather than sailing home again. Defining moment Vikings on the make 951 What to do about these Northmen? The question tormented all the monarchs of north-western Europe. With their supremely…

2 мин.

Defining moment The Settlement of Normandy 999 Charles the Simple, King of West Francia, grants land around Rouen to Rollo, the leader of local Viking settlers. In return, the pagan Rollo agrees to be baptised and he becomes the first ruler of the duchy of Normandy. The duchy is named after its Viking inhabitants from the Old French word ‘Normanz’, which is the plural word for ‘northman’. Norman Conquest of Southern Italy 999-1139 Normans begin to settle in southern Italy and often act as mercenaries for petty rulers. Over the course of decades, Norman warriors establish their own lordships and even capture Pope Leo IX. Subsequent papal endorsements lead to the conquest of Sicily and the creation of a Norman Sicilian monarchy. Conquest of England 1066 William, Duke of Normandy invades England to claim the…

3 мин.
battles, sieges & conquests

Castles are a key symbol of how the Normans transformed the British landscape and social structure Battle of Druim Dearg 14 May 1260 Downpatrick, County Down, Ireland Battle of Áth an Chip 1270 Carrick-on-Shannon, County Leitrim, Ireland Sack of Dun Gallimhe 1247 Galway, County Galway, Ireland Siege of Waterford 1170 Waterford, County Waterford, Ireland Norman Peasants’ Revolt 996 Normandy, France Battle of Segré 1066 Segré, Pays de la Loire, France Battle of Tinchebray 28 September 1106 Tinchebray, Normandy, France Battle of Brémule 20 August 1119 Gaillard-Cressenville, Normandy, France Siege of Thimert 1058-60 Thimert-Gâtelles, Centre-Val de Loire, France Battle of Anglesey Sound 1098 Menai Strait, Anglesey, Wales Battle of Crug Mawr October 1136 Penparc, Ceredigion, Wales Battle of Val-ès-Dunes 1047 Conteville, Normandy, France Siege of Gerberoy 1078-79 Gerberoy, Hauts-de-France, France Sack of Rome 1084 Rome, Italy Battle of Nocera 24 July 1132 Nocera Inferiore, Campania, Italy Battle of Rignano 1137 Rignano Garganico, Apulia, Italy Siege of Capua May-June 1098 Capua, Campania, Italy 1 Battle of Civitate 18…

8 мин.
the norman conquests

The king, Charles the Simple, lord of the Franks, stood waiting. Before him, the nominated Northman hesitated. What was he waiting for? It was all straightforward. The king had signed a treaty with the Northmen, ceding them the territory north of the River Epte to the coast, in return for their allegiance and conversion to Christianity. He has stood godfather to Rollo, the leader of the Northmen, at his baptism, and received his pledge of loyalty by taking the Northman’s hands in his own. Now, to really underline who was in charge, one of the Northmen just had to kiss the king’s foot. So why was he hesitating? But before Charles could turn to his bishops, who had suggested the foot-kissing, to ask about the delay, the Northman, one of Rollo’s…

3 мин.

Defining moment Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte 911 Charles the Simple decided to deal with the problem of Viking raiders by giving the raiders who had established a camp on the lower reaches of the Seine title to the land in return for their swearing allegiance to him, converting to Christianity, and their acting as wardens to prevent other Vikings sailing up the Seine to raid Paris. In return, the Vikings, led by their chief, Rollo, received the land between the River Epte and the coast. Rollo, now Count of Rouen, expanded the territory under his control and by 933 the Duchy of Normandy was established. 1002 Marrying up Emma, sister to the Duke of Normandy, married Æthelred, the king of England, bearing him two sons, and fatefully linking the English crown to the Dukes of…